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Based on kernel version 3.13. Page generated on 2014-01-20 22:02 EST.

1	<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2	<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
3		"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd" []>
4	
5	<book id="LinuxKernelAPI">
6	 <bookinfo>
7	  <title>The Linux Kernel API</title>
8	  
9	  <legalnotice>
10	   <para>
11	     This documentation is free software; you can redistribute
12	     it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
13	     License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
14	     version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
15	     version.
16	   </para>
17	      
18	   <para>
19	     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
20	     useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
21	     warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
22	     See the GNU General Public License for more details.
23	   </para>
24	      
25	   <para>
26	     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
27	     License along with this program; if not, write to the Free
28	     Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
29	     MA 02111-1307 USA
30	   </para>
31	      
32	   <para>
33	     For more details see the file COPYING in the source
34	     distribution of Linux.
35	   </para>
36	  </legalnotice>
37	 </bookinfo>
38	
39	<toc></toc>
40	
41	  <chapter id="adt">
42	     <title>Data Types</title>
43	     <sect1><title>Doubly Linked Lists</title>
44	!Iinclude/linux/list.h
45	     </sect1>
46	  </chapter>
47	
48	  <chapter id="libc">
49	     <title>Basic C Library Functions</title>
50	
51	     <para>
52	       When writing drivers, you cannot in general use routines which are
53	       from the C Library.  Some of the functions have been found generally
54	       useful and they are listed below.  The behaviour of these functions
55	       may vary slightly from those defined by ANSI, and these deviations
56	       are noted in the text.
57	     </para>
58	
59	     <sect1><title>String Conversions</title>
60	!Elib/vsprintf.c
61	!Finclude/linux/kernel.h kstrtol
62	!Finclude/linux/kernel.h kstrtoul
63	!Elib/kstrtox.c
64	     </sect1>
65	     <sect1><title>String Manipulation</title>
66	<!-- All functions are exported at now
67	X!Ilib/string.c
68	 -->
69	!Elib/string.c
70	     </sect1>
71	     <sect1><title>Bit Operations</title>
72	!Iarch/x86/include/asm/bitops.h
73	     </sect1>
74	  </chapter>
75	
76	  <chapter id="kernel-lib">
77	     <title>Basic Kernel Library Functions</title>
78	
79	     <para>
80	       The Linux kernel provides more basic utility functions.
81	     </para>
82	
83	     <sect1><title>Bitmap Operations</title>
84	!Elib/bitmap.c
85	!Ilib/bitmap.c
86	     </sect1>
87	
88	     <sect1><title>Command-line Parsing</title>
89	!Elib/cmdline.c
90	     </sect1>
91	
92	     <sect1 id="crc"><title>CRC Functions</title>
93	!Elib/crc7.c
94	!Elib/crc16.c
95	!Elib/crc-itu-t.c
96	!Elib/crc32.c
97	!Elib/crc-ccitt.c
98	     </sect1>
99	
100	     <sect1 id="idr"><title>idr/ida Functions</title>
101	!Pinclude/linux/idr.h idr sync
102	!Plib/idr.c IDA description
103	!Elib/idr.c
104	     </sect1>
105	  </chapter>
106	
107	  <chapter id="mm">
108	     <title>Memory Management in Linux</title>
109	     <sect1><title>The Slab Cache</title>
110	!Iinclude/linux/slab.h
111	!Emm/slab.c
112	     </sect1>
113	     <sect1><title>User Space Memory Access</title>
114	!Iarch/x86/include/asm/uaccess_32.h
115	!Earch/x86/lib/usercopy_32.c
116	     </sect1>
117	     <sect1><title>More Memory Management Functions</title>
118	!Emm/readahead.c
119	!Emm/filemap.c
120	!Emm/memory.c
121	!Emm/vmalloc.c
122	!Imm/page_alloc.c
123	!Emm/mempool.c
124	!Emm/dmapool.c
125	!Emm/page-writeback.c
126	!Emm/truncate.c
127	     </sect1>
128	  </chapter>
129	
130	
131	  <chapter id="ipc">
132	     <title>Kernel IPC facilities</title>
133	
134	     <sect1><title>IPC utilities</title>
135	!Iipc/util.c
136	     </sect1>
137	  </chapter>
138	
139	  <chapter id="kfifo">
140	     <title>FIFO Buffer</title>
141	     <sect1><title>kfifo interface</title>
142	!Iinclude/linux/kfifo.h
143	     </sect1>
144	  </chapter>
145	
146	  <chapter id="relayfs">
147	     <title>relay interface support</title>
148	
149	     <para>
150		Relay interface support
151		is designed to provide an efficient mechanism for tools and
152		facilities to relay large amounts of data from kernel space to
153		user space.
154	     </para>
155	
156	     <sect1><title>relay interface</title>
157	!Ekernel/relay.c
158	!Ikernel/relay.c
159	     </sect1>
160	  </chapter>
161	
162	  <chapter id="modload">
163	     <title>Module Support</title>
164	     <sect1><title>Module Loading</title>
165	!Ekernel/kmod.c
166	     </sect1>
167	     <sect1><title>Inter Module support</title>
168	        <para>
169	           Refer to the file kernel/module.c for more information.
170	        </para>
171	<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
172	X!Ekernel/module.c
173	-->
174	     </sect1>
175	  </chapter>
176	
177	  <chapter id="hardware">
178	     <title>Hardware Interfaces</title>
179	     <sect1><title>Interrupt Handling</title>
180	!Ekernel/irq/manage.c
181	     </sect1>
182	
183	     <sect1><title>DMA Channels</title>
184	!Ekernel/dma.c
185	     </sect1>
186	
187	     <sect1><title>Resources Management</title>
188	!Ikernel/resource.c
189	!Ekernel/resource.c
190	     </sect1>
191	
192	     <sect1><title>MTRR Handling</title>
193	!Earch/x86/kernel/cpu/mtrr/main.c
194	     </sect1>
195	
196	     <sect1><title>PCI Support Library</title>
197	!Edrivers/pci/pci.c
198	!Edrivers/pci/pci-driver.c
199	!Edrivers/pci/remove.c
200	!Edrivers/pci/search.c
201	!Edrivers/pci/msi.c
202	!Edrivers/pci/bus.c
203	!Edrivers/pci/access.c
204	!Edrivers/pci/irq.c
205	!Edrivers/pci/htirq.c
206	<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
207	X!Edrivers/pci/hotplug.c
208	-->
209	!Edrivers/pci/probe.c
210	!Edrivers/pci/slot.c
211	!Edrivers/pci/rom.c
212	!Edrivers/pci/iov.c
213	!Idrivers/pci/pci-sysfs.c
214	     </sect1>
215	     <sect1><title>PCI Hotplug Support Library</title>
216	!Edrivers/pci/hotplug/pci_hotplug_core.c
217	     </sect1>
218	  </chapter>
219	
220	  <chapter id="firmware">
221	     <title>Firmware Interfaces</title>
222	     <sect1><title>DMI Interfaces</title>
223	!Edrivers/firmware/dmi_scan.c
224	     </sect1>
225	     <sect1><title>EDD Interfaces</title>
226	!Idrivers/firmware/edd.c
227	     </sect1>
228	  </chapter>
229	
230	  <chapter id="security">
231	     <title>Security Framework</title>
232	!Isecurity/security.c
233	!Esecurity/inode.c
234	  </chapter>
235	
236	  <chapter id="audit">
237	     <title>Audit Interfaces</title>
238	!Ekernel/audit.c
239	!Ikernel/auditsc.c
240	!Ikernel/auditfilter.c
241	  </chapter>
242	
243	  <chapter id="accounting">
244	     <title>Accounting Framework</title>
245	!Ikernel/acct.c
246	  </chapter>
247	
248	  <chapter id="blkdev">
249	     <title>Block Devices</title>
250	!Eblock/blk-core.c
251	!Iblock/blk-core.c
252	!Eblock/blk-map.c
253	!Iblock/blk-sysfs.c
254	!Eblock/blk-settings.c
255	!Eblock/blk-exec.c
256	!Eblock/blk-flush.c
257	!Eblock/blk-lib.c
258	!Eblock/blk-tag.c
259	!Iblock/blk-tag.c
260	!Eblock/blk-integrity.c
261	!Ikernel/trace/blktrace.c
262	!Iblock/genhd.c
263	!Eblock/genhd.c
264	  </chapter>
265	
266	  <chapter id="chrdev">
267		<title>Char devices</title>
268	!Efs/char_dev.c
269	  </chapter>
270	
271	  <chapter id="miscdev">
272	     <title>Miscellaneous Devices</title>
273	!Edrivers/char/misc.c
274	  </chapter>
275	
276	  <chapter id="clk">
277	     <title>Clock Framework</title>
278	
279	     <para>
280		The clock framework defines programming interfaces to support
281		software management of the system clock tree.
282		This framework is widely used with System-On-Chip (SOC) platforms
283		to support power management and various devices which may need
284		custom clock rates.
285		Note that these "clocks" don't relate to timekeeping or real
286		time clocks (RTCs), each of which have separate frameworks.
287		These <structname>struct clk</structname> instances may be used
288		to manage for example a 96 MHz signal that is used to shift bits
289		into and out of peripherals or busses, or otherwise trigger
290		synchronous state machine transitions in system hardware.
291	     </para>
292	
293	     <para>
294		Power management is supported by explicit software clock gating:
295		unused clocks are disabled, so the system doesn't waste power
296		changing the state of transistors that aren't in active use.
297		On some systems this may be backed by hardware clock gating,
298		where clocks are gated without being disabled in software.
299		Sections of chips that are powered but not clocked may be able
300		to retain their last state.
301		This low power state is often called a <emphasis>retention
302		mode</emphasis>.
303		This mode still incurs leakage currents, especially with finer
304		circuit geometries, but for CMOS circuits power is mostly used
305		by clocked state changes.
306	     </para>
307	
308	     <para>
309		Power-aware drivers only enable their clocks when the device
310		they manage is in active use.  Also, system sleep states often
311		differ according to which clock domains are active:  while a
312		"standby" state may allow wakeup from several active domains, a
313		"mem" (suspend-to-RAM) state may require a more wholesale shutdown
314		of clocks derived from higher speed PLLs and oscillators, limiting
315		the number of possible wakeup event sources.  A driver's suspend
316		method may need to be aware of system-specific clock constraints
317		on the target sleep state.
318	     </para>
319	
320	     <para>
321	        Some platforms support programmable clock generators.  These
322		can be used by external chips of various kinds, such as other
323		CPUs, multimedia codecs, and devices with strict requirements
324		for interface clocking.
325	     </para>
326	
327	!Iinclude/linux/clk.h
328	  </chapter>
329	
330	</book>
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