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Based on kernel version 3.16. Page generated on 2014-08-06 21:38 EST.

1	<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2	<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
3		"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd" []>
4	
5	<book id="LinuxKernelAPI">
6	 <bookinfo>
7	  <title>The Linux Kernel API</title>
8	  
9	  <legalnotice>
10	   <para>
11	     This documentation is free software; you can redistribute
12	     it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
13	     License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
14	     version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
15	     version.
16	   </para>
17	      
18	   <para>
19	     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
20	     useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
21	     warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
22	     See the GNU General Public License for more details.
23	   </para>
24	      
25	   <para>
26	     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
27	     License along with this program; if not, write to the Free
28	     Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
29	     MA 02111-1307 USA
30	   </para>
31	      
32	   <para>
33	     For more details see the file COPYING in the source
34	     distribution of Linux.
35	   </para>
36	  </legalnotice>
37	 </bookinfo>
38	
39	<toc></toc>
40	
41	  <chapter id="adt">
42	     <title>Data Types</title>
43	     <sect1><title>Doubly Linked Lists</title>
44	!Iinclude/linux/list.h
45	     </sect1>
46	  </chapter>
47	
48	  <chapter id="libc">
49	     <title>Basic C Library Functions</title>
50	
51	     <para>
52	       When writing drivers, you cannot in general use routines which are
53	       from the C Library.  Some of the functions have been found generally
54	       useful and they are listed below.  The behaviour of these functions
55	       may vary slightly from those defined by ANSI, and these deviations
56	       are noted in the text.
57	     </para>
58	
59	     <sect1><title>String Conversions</title>
60	!Elib/vsprintf.c
61	!Finclude/linux/kernel.h kstrtol
62	!Finclude/linux/kernel.h kstrtoul
63	!Elib/kstrtox.c
64	     </sect1>
65	     <sect1><title>String Manipulation</title>
66	<!-- All functions are exported at now
67	X!Ilib/string.c
68	 -->
69	!Elib/string.c
70	     </sect1>
71	     <sect1><title>Bit Operations</title>
72	!Iarch/x86/include/asm/bitops.h
73	     </sect1>
74	  </chapter>
75	
76	  <chapter id="kernel-lib">
77	     <title>Basic Kernel Library Functions</title>
78	
79	     <para>
80	       The Linux kernel provides more basic utility functions.
81	     </para>
82	
83	     <sect1><title>Bitmap Operations</title>
84	!Elib/bitmap.c
85	!Ilib/bitmap.c
86	     </sect1>
87	
88	     <sect1><title>Command-line Parsing</title>
89	!Elib/cmdline.c
90	     </sect1>
91	
92	     <sect1 id="crc"><title>CRC Functions</title>
93	!Elib/crc7.c
94	!Elib/crc16.c
95	!Elib/crc-itu-t.c
96	!Elib/crc32.c
97	!Elib/crc-ccitt.c
98	     </sect1>
99	
100	     <sect1 id="idr"><title>idr/ida Functions</title>
101	!Pinclude/linux/idr.h idr sync
102	!Plib/idr.c IDA description
103	!Elib/idr.c
104	     </sect1>
105	  </chapter>
106	
107	  <chapter id="mm">
108	     <title>Memory Management in Linux</title>
109	     <sect1><title>The Slab Cache</title>
110	!Iinclude/linux/slab.h
111	!Emm/slab.c
112	!Emm/util.c
113	     </sect1>
114	     <sect1><title>User Space Memory Access</title>
115	!Iarch/x86/include/asm/uaccess_32.h
116	!Earch/x86/lib/usercopy_32.c
117	     </sect1>
118	     <sect1><title>More Memory Management Functions</title>
119	!Emm/readahead.c
120	!Emm/filemap.c
121	!Emm/memory.c
122	!Emm/vmalloc.c
123	!Imm/page_alloc.c
124	!Emm/mempool.c
125	!Emm/dmapool.c
126	!Emm/page-writeback.c
127	!Emm/truncate.c
128	     </sect1>
129	  </chapter>
130	
131	
132	  <chapter id="ipc">
133	     <title>Kernel IPC facilities</title>
134	
135	     <sect1><title>IPC utilities</title>
136	!Iipc/util.c
137	     </sect1>
138	  </chapter>
139	
140	  <chapter id="kfifo">
141	     <title>FIFO Buffer</title>
142	     <sect1><title>kfifo interface</title>
143	!Iinclude/linux/kfifo.h
144	     </sect1>
145	  </chapter>
146	
147	  <chapter id="relayfs">
148	     <title>relay interface support</title>
149	
150	     <para>
151		Relay interface support
152		is designed to provide an efficient mechanism for tools and
153		facilities to relay large amounts of data from kernel space to
154		user space.
155	     </para>
156	
157	     <sect1><title>relay interface</title>
158	!Ekernel/relay.c
159	!Ikernel/relay.c
160	     </sect1>
161	  </chapter>
162	
163	  <chapter id="modload">
164	     <title>Module Support</title>
165	     <sect1><title>Module Loading</title>
166	!Ekernel/kmod.c
167	     </sect1>
168	     <sect1><title>Inter Module support</title>
169	        <para>
170	           Refer to the file kernel/module.c for more information.
171	        </para>
172	<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
173	X!Ekernel/module.c
174	-->
175	     </sect1>
176	  </chapter>
177	
178	  <chapter id="hardware">
179	     <title>Hardware Interfaces</title>
180	     <sect1><title>Interrupt Handling</title>
181	!Ekernel/irq/manage.c
182	     </sect1>
183	
184	     <sect1><title>DMA Channels</title>
185	!Ekernel/dma.c
186	     </sect1>
187	
188	     <sect1><title>Resources Management</title>
189	!Ikernel/resource.c
190	!Ekernel/resource.c
191	     </sect1>
192	
193	     <sect1><title>MTRR Handling</title>
194	!Earch/x86/kernel/cpu/mtrr/main.c
195	     </sect1>
196	
197	     <sect1><title>PCI Support Library</title>
198	!Edrivers/pci/pci.c
199	!Edrivers/pci/pci-driver.c
200	!Edrivers/pci/remove.c
201	!Edrivers/pci/search.c
202	!Edrivers/pci/msi.c
203	!Edrivers/pci/bus.c
204	!Edrivers/pci/access.c
205	!Edrivers/pci/irq.c
206	!Edrivers/pci/htirq.c
207	<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
208	X!Edrivers/pci/hotplug.c
209	-->
210	!Edrivers/pci/probe.c
211	!Edrivers/pci/slot.c
212	!Edrivers/pci/rom.c
213	!Edrivers/pci/iov.c
214	!Idrivers/pci/pci-sysfs.c
215	     </sect1>
216	     <sect1><title>PCI Hotplug Support Library</title>
217	!Edrivers/pci/hotplug/pci_hotplug_core.c
218	     </sect1>
219	  </chapter>
220	
221	  <chapter id="firmware">
222	     <title>Firmware Interfaces</title>
223	     <sect1><title>DMI Interfaces</title>
224	!Edrivers/firmware/dmi_scan.c
225	     </sect1>
226	     <sect1><title>EDD Interfaces</title>
227	!Idrivers/firmware/edd.c
228	     </sect1>
229	  </chapter>
230	
231	  <chapter id="security">
232	     <title>Security Framework</title>
233	!Isecurity/security.c
234	!Esecurity/inode.c
235	  </chapter>
236	
237	  <chapter id="audit">
238	     <title>Audit Interfaces</title>
239	!Ekernel/audit.c
240	!Ikernel/auditsc.c
241	!Ikernel/auditfilter.c
242	  </chapter>
243	
244	  <chapter id="accounting">
245	     <title>Accounting Framework</title>
246	!Ikernel/acct.c
247	  </chapter>
248	
249	  <chapter id="blkdev">
250	     <title>Block Devices</title>
251	!Eblock/blk-core.c
252	!Iblock/blk-core.c
253	!Eblock/blk-map.c
254	!Iblock/blk-sysfs.c
255	!Eblock/blk-settings.c
256	!Eblock/blk-exec.c
257	!Eblock/blk-flush.c
258	!Eblock/blk-lib.c
259	!Eblock/blk-tag.c
260	!Iblock/blk-tag.c
261	!Eblock/blk-integrity.c
262	!Ikernel/trace/blktrace.c
263	!Iblock/genhd.c
264	!Eblock/genhd.c
265	  </chapter>
266	
267	  <chapter id="chrdev">
268		<title>Char devices</title>
269	!Efs/char_dev.c
270	  </chapter>
271	
272	  <chapter id="miscdev">
273	     <title>Miscellaneous Devices</title>
274	!Edrivers/char/misc.c
275	  </chapter>
276	
277	  <chapter id="clk">
278	     <title>Clock Framework</title>
279	
280	     <para>
281		The clock framework defines programming interfaces to support
282		software management of the system clock tree.
283		This framework is widely used with System-On-Chip (SOC) platforms
284		to support power management and various devices which may need
285		custom clock rates.
286		Note that these "clocks" don't relate to timekeeping or real
287		time clocks (RTCs), each of which have separate frameworks.
288		These <structname>struct clk</structname> instances may be used
289		to manage for example a 96 MHz signal that is used to shift bits
290		into and out of peripherals or busses, or otherwise trigger
291		synchronous state machine transitions in system hardware.
292	     </para>
293	
294	     <para>
295		Power management is supported by explicit software clock gating:
296		unused clocks are disabled, so the system doesn't waste power
297		changing the state of transistors that aren't in active use.
298		On some systems this may be backed by hardware clock gating,
299		where clocks are gated without being disabled in software.
300		Sections of chips that are powered but not clocked may be able
301		to retain their last state.
302		This low power state is often called a <emphasis>retention
303		mode</emphasis>.
304		This mode still incurs leakage currents, especially with finer
305		circuit geometries, but for CMOS circuits power is mostly used
306		by clocked state changes.
307	     </para>
308	
309	     <para>
310		Power-aware drivers only enable their clocks when the device
311		they manage is in active use.  Also, system sleep states often
312		differ according to which clock domains are active:  while a
313		"standby" state may allow wakeup from several active domains, a
314		"mem" (suspend-to-RAM) state may require a more wholesale shutdown
315		of clocks derived from higher speed PLLs and oscillators, limiting
316		the number of possible wakeup event sources.  A driver's suspend
317		method may need to be aware of system-specific clock constraints
318		on the target sleep state.
319	     </para>
320	
321	     <para>
322	        Some platforms support programmable clock generators.  These
323		can be used by external chips of various kinds, such as other
324		CPUs, multimedia codecs, and devices with strict requirements
325		for interface clocking.
326	     </para>
327	
328	!Iinclude/linux/clk.h
329	  </chapter>
330	
331	</book>
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