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Based on kernel version 3.16. Page generated on 2014-08-06 21:40 EST.

1	Device Power Management
2	
3	Copyright (c) 2010-2011 Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>, Novell Inc.
4	Copyright (c) 2010 Alan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu>
5	Copyright (c) 2014 Intel Corp., Rafael J. Wysocki <rafael.j.wysocki@intel.com>
6	
7	
8	Most of the code in Linux is device drivers, so most of the Linux power
9	management (PM) code is also driver-specific.  Most drivers will do very
10	little; others, especially for platforms with small batteries (like cell
11	phones), will do a lot.
12	
13	This writeup gives an overview of how drivers interact with system-wide
14	power management goals, emphasizing the models and interfaces that are
15	shared by everything that hooks up to the driver model core.  Read it as
16	background for the domain-specific work you'd do with any specific driver.
17	
18	
19	Two Models for Device Power Management
20	======================================
21	Drivers will use one or both of these models to put devices into low-power
22	states:
23	
24	    System Sleep model:
25		Drivers can enter low-power states as part of entering system-wide
26		low-power states like "suspend" (also known as "suspend-to-RAM"), or
27		(mostly for systems with disks) "hibernation" (also known as
28		"suspend-to-disk").
29	
30		This is something that device, bus, and class drivers collaborate on
31		by implementing various role-specific suspend and resume methods to
32		cleanly power down hardware and software subsystems, then reactivate
33		them without loss of data.
34	
35		Some drivers can manage hardware wakeup events, which make the system
36		leave the low-power state.  This feature may be enabled or disabled
37		using the relevant /sys/devices/.../power/wakeup file (for Ethernet
38		drivers the ioctl interface used by ethtool may also be used for this
39		purpose); enabling it may cost some power usage, but let the whole
40		system enter low-power states more often.
41	
42	    Runtime Power Management model:
43		Devices may also be put into low-power states while the system is
44		running, independently of other power management activity in principle.
45		However, devices are not generally independent of each other (for
46		example, a parent device cannot be suspended unless all of its child
47		devices have been suspended).  Moreover, depending on the bus type the
48		device is on, it may be necessary to carry out some bus-specific
49		operations on the device for this purpose.  Devices put into low power
50		states at run time may require special handling during system-wide power
51		transitions (suspend or hibernation).
52	
53		For these reasons not only the device driver itself, but also the
54		appropriate subsystem (bus type, device type or device class) driver and
55		the PM core are involved in runtime power management.  As in the system
56		sleep power management case, they need to collaborate by implementing
57		various role-specific suspend and resume methods, so that the hardware
58		is cleanly powered down and reactivated without data or service loss.
59	
60	There's not a lot to be said about those low-power states except that they are
61	very system-specific, and often device-specific.  Also, that if enough devices
62	have been put into low-power states (at runtime), the effect may be very similar
63	to entering some system-wide low-power state (system sleep) ... and that
64	synergies exist, so that several drivers using runtime PM might put the system
65	into a state where even deeper power saving options are available.
66	
67	Most suspended devices will have quiesced all I/O: no more DMA or IRQs (except
68	for wakeup events), no more data read or written, and requests from upstream
69	drivers are no longer accepted.  A given bus or platform may have different
70	requirements though.
71	
72	Examples of hardware wakeup events include an alarm from a real time clock,
73	network wake-on-LAN packets, keyboard or mouse activity, and media insertion
74	or removal (for PCMCIA, MMC/SD, USB, and so on).
75	
76	
77	Interfaces for Entering System Sleep States
78	===========================================
79	There are programming interfaces provided for subsystems (bus type, device type,
80	device class) and device drivers to allow them to participate in the power
81	management of devices they are concerned with.  These interfaces cover both
82	system sleep and runtime power management.
83	
84	
85	Device Power Management Operations
86	----------------------------------
87	Device power management operations, at the subsystem level as well as at the
88	device driver level, are implemented by defining and populating objects of type
89	struct dev_pm_ops:
90	
91	struct dev_pm_ops {
92		int (*prepare)(struct device *dev);
93		void (*complete)(struct device *dev);
94		int (*suspend)(struct device *dev);
95		int (*resume)(struct device *dev);
96		int (*freeze)(struct device *dev);
97		int (*thaw)(struct device *dev);
98		int (*poweroff)(struct device *dev);
99		int (*restore)(struct device *dev);
100		int (*suspend_late)(struct device *dev);
101		int (*resume_early)(struct device *dev);
102		int (*freeze_late)(struct device *dev);
103		int (*thaw_early)(struct device *dev);
104		int (*poweroff_late)(struct device *dev);
105		int (*restore_early)(struct device *dev);
106		int (*suspend_noirq)(struct device *dev);
107		int (*resume_noirq)(struct device *dev);
108		int (*freeze_noirq)(struct device *dev);
109		int (*thaw_noirq)(struct device *dev);
110		int (*poweroff_noirq)(struct device *dev);
111		int (*restore_noirq)(struct device *dev);
112		int (*runtime_suspend)(struct device *dev);
113		int (*runtime_resume)(struct device *dev);
114		int (*runtime_idle)(struct device *dev);
115	};
116	
117	This structure is defined in include/linux/pm.h and the methods included in it
118	are also described in that file.  Their roles will be explained in what follows.
119	For now, it should be sufficient to remember that the last three methods are
120	specific to runtime power management while the remaining ones are used during
121	system-wide power transitions.
122	
123	There also is a deprecated "old" or "legacy" interface for power management
124	operations available at least for some subsystems.  This approach does not use
125	struct dev_pm_ops objects and it is suitable only for implementing system sleep
126	power management methods.  Therefore it is not described in this document, so
127	please refer directly to the source code for more information about it.
128	
129	
130	Subsystem-Level Methods
131	-----------------------
132	The core methods to suspend and resume devices reside in struct dev_pm_ops
133	pointed to by the ops member of struct dev_pm_domain, or by the pm member of
134	struct bus_type, struct device_type and struct class.  They are mostly of
135	interest to the people writing infrastructure for platforms and buses, like PCI
136	or USB, or device type and device class drivers.  They also are relevant to the
137	writers of device drivers whose subsystems (PM domains, device types, device
138	classes and bus types) don't provide all power management methods.
139	
140	Bus drivers implement these methods as appropriate for the hardware and the
141	drivers using it; PCI works differently from USB, and so on.  Not many people
142	write subsystem-level drivers; most driver code is a "device driver" that builds
143	on top of bus-specific framework code.
144	
145	For more information on these driver calls, see the description later;
146	they are called in phases for every device, respecting the parent-child
147	sequencing in the driver model tree.
148	
149	
150	/sys/devices/.../power/wakeup files
151	-----------------------------------
152	All device objects in the driver model contain fields that control the handling
153	of system wakeup events (hardware signals that can force the system out of a
154	sleep state).  These fields are initialized by bus or device driver code using
155	device_set_wakeup_capable() and device_set_wakeup_enable(), defined in
156	include/linux/pm_wakeup.h.
157	
158	The "power.can_wakeup" flag just records whether the device (and its driver) can
159	physically support wakeup events.  The device_set_wakeup_capable() routine
160	affects this flag.  The "power.wakeup" field is a pointer to an object of type
161	struct wakeup_source used for controlling whether or not the device should use
162	its system wakeup mechanism and for notifying the PM core of system wakeup
163	events signaled by the device.  This object is only present for wakeup-capable
164	devices (i.e. devices whose "can_wakeup" flags are set) and is created (or
165	removed) by device_set_wakeup_capable().
166	
167	Whether or not a device is capable of issuing wakeup events is a hardware
168	matter, and the kernel is responsible for keeping track of it.  By contrast,
169	whether or not a wakeup-capable device should issue wakeup events is a policy
170	decision, and it is managed by user space through a sysfs attribute: the
171	"power/wakeup" file.  User space can write the strings "enabled" or "disabled"
172	to it to indicate whether or not, respectively, the device is supposed to signal
173	system wakeup.  This file is only present if the "power.wakeup" object exists
174	for the given device and is created (or removed) along with that object, by
175	device_set_wakeup_capable().  Reads from the file will return the corresponding
176	string.
177	
178	The "power/wakeup" file is supposed to contain the "disabled" string initially
179	for the majority of devices; the major exceptions are power buttons, keyboards,
180	and Ethernet adapters whose WoL (wake-on-LAN) feature has been set up with
181	ethtool.  It should also default to "enabled" for devices that don't generate
182	wakeup requests on their own but merely forward wakeup requests from one bus to
183	another (like PCI Express ports).
184	
185	The device_may_wakeup() routine returns true only if the "power.wakeup" object
186	exists and the corresponding "power/wakeup" file contains the string "enabled".
187	This information is used by subsystems, like the PCI bus type code, to see
188	whether or not to enable the devices' wakeup mechanisms.  If device wakeup
189	mechanisms are enabled or disabled directly by drivers, they also should use
190	device_may_wakeup() to decide what to do during a system sleep transition.
191	Device drivers, however, are not supposed to call device_set_wakeup_enable()
192	directly in any case.
193	
194	It ought to be noted that system wakeup is conceptually different from "remote
195	wakeup" used by runtime power management, although it may be supported by the
196	same physical mechanism.  Remote wakeup is a feature allowing devices in
197	low-power states to trigger specific interrupts to signal conditions in which
198	they should be put into the full-power state.  Those interrupts may or may not
199	be used to signal system wakeup events, depending on the hardware design.  On
200	some systems it is impossible to trigger them from system sleep states.  In any
201	case, remote wakeup should always be enabled for runtime power management for
202	all devices and drivers that support it.
203	
204	/sys/devices/.../power/control files
205	------------------------------------
206	Each device in the driver model has a flag to control whether it is subject to
207	runtime power management.  This flag, called runtime_auto, is initialized by the
208	bus type (or generally subsystem) code using pm_runtime_allow() or
209	pm_runtime_forbid(); the default is to allow runtime power management.
210	
211	The setting can be adjusted by user space by writing either "on" or "auto" to
212	the device's power/control sysfs file.  Writing "auto" calls pm_runtime_allow(),
213	setting the flag and allowing the device to be runtime power-managed by its
214	driver.  Writing "on" calls pm_runtime_forbid(), clearing the flag, returning
215	the device to full power if it was in a low-power state, and preventing the
216	device from being runtime power-managed.  User space can check the current value
217	of the runtime_auto flag by reading the file.
218	
219	The device's runtime_auto flag has no effect on the handling of system-wide
220	power transitions.  In particular, the device can (and in the majority of cases
221	should and will) be put into a low-power state during a system-wide transition
222	to a sleep state even though its runtime_auto flag is clear.
223	
224	For more information about the runtime power management framework, refer to
225	Documentation/power/runtime_pm.txt.
226	
227	
228	Calling Drivers to Enter and Leave System Sleep States
229	======================================================
230	When the system goes into a sleep state, each device's driver is asked to
231	suspend the device by putting it into a state compatible with the target
232	system state.  That's usually some version of "off", but the details are
233	system-specific.  Also, wakeup-enabled devices will usually stay partly
234	functional in order to wake the system.
235	
236	When the system leaves that low-power state, the device's driver is asked to
237	resume it by returning it to full power.  The suspend and resume operations
238	always go together, and both are multi-phase operations.
239	
240	For simple drivers, suspend might quiesce the device using class code
241	and then turn its hardware as "off" as possible during suspend_noirq.  The
242	matching resume calls would then completely reinitialize the hardware
243	before reactivating its class I/O queues.
244	
245	More power-aware drivers might prepare the devices for triggering system wakeup
246	events.
247	
248	
249	Call Sequence Guarantees
250	------------------------
251	To ensure that bridges and similar links needing to talk to a device are
252	available when the device is suspended or resumed, the device tree is
253	walked in a bottom-up order to suspend devices.  A top-down order is
254	used to resume those devices.
255	
256	The ordering of the device tree is defined by the order in which devices
257	get registered:  a child can never be registered, probed or resumed before
258	its parent; and can't be removed or suspended after that parent.
259	
260	The policy is that the device tree should match hardware bus topology.
261	(Or at least the control bus, for devices which use multiple busses.)
262	In particular, this means that a device registration may fail if the parent of
263	the device is suspending (i.e. has been chosen by the PM core as the next
264	device to suspend) or has already suspended, as well as after all of the other
265	devices have been suspended.  Device drivers must be prepared to cope with such
266	situations.
267	
268	
269	System Power Management Phases
270	------------------------------
271	Suspending or resuming the system is done in several phases.  Different phases
272	are used for freeze, standby, and memory sleep states ("suspend-to-RAM") and the
273	hibernation state ("suspend-to-disk").  Each phase involves executing callbacks
274	for every device before the next phase begins.  Not all busses or classes
275	support all these callbacks and not all drivers use all the callbacks.  The
276	various phases always run after tasks have been frozen and before they are
277	unfrozen.  Furthermore, the *_noirq phases run at a time when IRQ handlers have
278	been disabled (except for those marked with the IRQF_NO_SUSPEND flag).
279	
280	All phases use PM domain, bus, type, class or driver callbacks (that is, methods
281	defined in dev->pm_domain->ops, dev->bus->pm, dev->type->pm, dev->class->pm or
282	dev->driver->pm).  These callbacks are regarded by the PM core as mutually
283	exclusive.  Moreover, PM domain callbacks always take precedence over all of the
284	other callbacks and, for example, type callbacks take precedence over bus, class
285	and driver callbacks.  To be precise, the following rules are used to determine
286	which callback to execute in the given phase:
287	
288	    1.	If dev->pm_domain is present, the PM core will choose the callback
289		included in dev->pm_domain->ops for execution
290	
291	    2.	Otherwise, if both dev->type and dev->type->pm are present, the callback
292		included in dev->type->pm will be chosen for execution.
293	
294	    3.	Otherwise, if both dev->class and dev->class->pm are present, the
295		callback included in dev->class->pm will be chosen for execution.
296	
297	    4.	Otherwise, if both dev->bus and dev->bus->pm are present, the callback
298		included in dev->bus->pm will be chosen for execution.
299	
300	This allows PM domains and device types to override callbacks provided by bus
301	types or device classes if necessary.
302	
303	The PM domain, type, class and bus callbacks may in turn invoke device- or
304	driver-specific methods stored in dev->driver->pm, but they don't have to do
305	that.
306	
307	If the subsystem callback chosen for execution is not present, the PM core will
308	execute the corresponding method from dev->driver->pm instead if there is one.
309	
310	
311	Entering System Suspend
312	-----------------------
313	When the system goes into the freeze, standby or memory sleep state,
314	the phases are:
315	
316			prepare, suspend, suspend_late, suspend_noirq.
317	
318	    1.	The prepare phase is meant to prevent races by preventing new devices
319		from being registered; the PM core would never know that all the
320		children of a device had been suspended if new children could be
321		registered at will.  (By contrast, devices may be unregistered at any
322		time.)  Unlike the other suspend-related phases, during the prepare
323		phase the device tree is traversed top-down.
324	
325		After the prepare callback method returns, no new children may be
326		registered below the device.  The method may also prepare the device or
327		driver in some way for the upcoming system power transition, but it
328		should not put the device into a low-power state.
329	
330		For devices supporting runtime power management, the return value of the
331		prepare callback can be used to indicate to the PM core that it may
332		safely leave the device in runtime suspend (if runtime-suspended
333		already), provided that all of the device's descendants are also left in
334		runtime suspend.  Namely, if the prepare callback returns a positive
335		number and that happens for all of the descendants of the device too,
336		and all of them (including the device itself) are runtime-suspended, the
337		PM core will skip the suspend, suspend_late and	suspend_noirq suspend
338		phases as well as the resume_noirq, resume_early and resume phases of
339		the following system resume for all of these devices.	In that case,
340		the complete callback will be called directly after the prepare callback
341		and is entirely responsible for bringing the device back to the
342		functional state as appropriate.
343	
344	    2.	The suspend methods should quiesce the device to stop it from performing
345		I/O.  They also may save the device registers and put it into the
346		appropriate low-power state, depending on the bus type the device is on,
347		and they may enable wakeup events.
348	
349	    3	For a number of devices it is convenient to split suspend into the
350		"quiesce device" and "save device state" phases, in which cases
351		suspend_late is meant to do the latter.  It is always executed after
352		runtime power management has been disabled for all devices.
353	
354	    4.	The suspend_noirq phase occurs after IRQ handlers have been disabled,
355		which means that the driver's interrupt handler will not be called while
356		the callback method is running.  The methods should save the values of
357		the device's registers that weren't saved previously and finally put the
358		device into the appropriate low-power state.
359	
360		The majority of subsystems and device drivers need not implement this
361		callback.  However, bus types allowing devices to share interrupt
362		vectors, like PCI, generally need it; otherwise a driver might encounter
363		an error during the suspend phase by fielding a shared interrupt
364		generated by some other device after its own device had been set to low
365		power.
366	
367	At the end of these phases, drivers should have stopped all I/O transactions
368	(DMA, IRQs), saved enough state that they can re-initialize or restore previous
369	state (as needed by the hardware), and placed the device into a low-power state.
370	On many platforms they will gate off one or more clock sources; sometimes they
371	will also switch off power supplies or reduce voltages.  (Drivers supporting
372	runtime PM may already have performed some or all of these steps.)
373	
374	If device_may_wakeup(dev) returns true, the device should be prepared for
375	generating hardware wakeup signals to trigger a system wakeup event when the
376	system is in the sleep state.  For example, enable_irq_wake() might identify
377	GPIO signals hooked up to a switch or other external hardware, and
378	pci_enable_wake() does something similar for the PCI PME signal.
379	
380	If any of these callbacks returns an error, the system won't enter the desired
381	low-power state.  Instead the PM core will unwind its actions by resuming all
382	the devices that were suspended.
383	
384	
385	Leaving System Suspend
386	----------------------
387	When resuming from freeze, standby or memory sleep, the phases are:
388	
389			resume_noirq, resume_early, resume, complete.
390	
391	    1.	The resume_noirq callback methods should perform any actions needed
392		before the driver's interrupt handlers are invoked.  This generally
393		means undoing the actions of the suspend_noirq phase.  If the bus type
394		permits devices to share interrupt vectors, like PCI, the method should
395		bring the device and its driver into a state in which the driver can
396		recognize if the device is the source of incoming interrupts, if any,
397		and handle them correctly.
398	
399		For example, the PCI bus type's ->pm.resume_noirq() puts the device into
400		the full-power state (D0 in the PCI terminology) and restores the
401		standard configuration registers of the device.  Then it calls the
402		device driver's ->pm.resume_noirq() method to perform device-specific
403		actions.
404	
405	    2.	The resume_early methods should prepare devices for the execution of
406		the resume methods.  This generally involves undoing the actions of the
407		preceding suspend_late phase.
408	
409	    3	The resume methods should bring the device back to its operating
410		state, so that it can perform normal I/O.  This generally involves
411		undoing the actions of the suspend phase.
412	
413	    4.	The complete phase should undo the actions of the prepare phase.  Note,
414		however, that new children may be registered below the device as soon as
415		the resume callbacks occur; it's not necessary to wait until the
416		complete phase.
417	
418		Moreover, if the preceding prepare callback returned a positive number,
419		the device may have been left in runtime suspend throughout the whole
420		system suspend and resume (the suspend, suspend_late, suspend_noirq
421		phases of system suspend and the resume_noirq, resume_early, resume
422		phases of system resume may have been skipped for it).  In that case,
423		the complete callback is entirely responsible for bringing the device
424		back to the functional state after system suspend if necessary.  [For
425		example, it may need to queue up a runtime resume request for the device
426		for this purpose.]  To check if that is the case, the complete callback
427		can consult the device's power.direct_complete flag.  Namely, if that
428		flag is set when the complete callback is being run, it has been called
429		directly after the preceding prepare and special action may be required
430		to make the device work correctly afterward.
431	
432	At the end of these phases, drivers should be as functional as they were before
433	suspending: I/O can be performed using DMA and IRQs, and the relevant clocks are
434	gated on.
435	
436	However, the details here may again be platform-specific.  For example,
437	some systems support multiple "run" states, and the mode in effect at
438	the end of resume might not be the one which preceded suspension.
439	That means availability of certain clocks or power supplies changed,
440	which could easily affect how a driver works.
441	
442	Drivers need to be able to handle hardware which has been reset since the
443	suspend methods were called, for example by complete reinitialization.
444	This may be the hardest part, and the one most protected by NDA'd documents
445	and chip errata.  It's simplest if the hardware state hasn't changed since
446	the suspend was carried out, but that can't be guaranteed (in fact, it usually
447	is not the case).
448	
449	Drivers must also be prepared to notice that the device has been removed
450	while the system was powered down, whenever that's physically possible.
451	PCMCIA, MMC, USB, Firewire, SCSI, and even IDE are common examples of busses
452	where common Linux platforms will see such removal.  Details of how drivers
453	will notice and handle such removals are currently bus-specific, and often
454	involve a separate thread.
455	
456	These callbacks may return an error value, but the PM core will ignore such
457	errors since there's nothing it can do about them other than printing them in
458	the system log.
459	
460	
461	Entering Hibernation
462	--------------------
463	Hibernating the system is more complicated than putting it into the other
464	sleep states, because it involves creating and saving a system image.
465	Therefore there are more phases for hibernation, with a different set of
466	callbacks.  These phases always run after tasks have been frozen and memory has
467	been freed.
468	
469	The general procedure for hibernation is to quiesce all devices (freeze), create
470	an image of the system memory while everything is stable, reactivate all
471	devices (thaw), write the image to permanent storage, and finally shut down the
472	system (poweroff).  The phases used to accomplish this are:
473	
474		prepare, freeze, freeze_late, freeze_noirq, thaw_noirq, thaw_early,
475		thaw, complete, prepare, poweroff, poweroff_late, poweroff_noirq
476	
477	    1.	The prepare phase is discussed in the "Entering System Suspend" section
478		above.
479	
480	    2.	The freeze methods should quiesce the device so that it doesn't generate
481		IRQs or DMA, and they may need to save the values of device registers.
482		However the device does not have to be put in a low-power state, and to
483		save time it's best not to do so.  Also, the device should not be
484		prepared to generate wakeup events.
485	
486	    3.	The freeze_late phase is analogous to the suspend_late phase described
487		above, except that the device should not be put in a low-power state and
488		should not be allowed to generate wakeup events by it.
489	
490	    4.	The freeze_noirq phase is analogous to the suspend_noirq phase discussed
491		above, except again that the device should not be put in a low-power
492		state and should not be allowed to generate wakeup events.
493	
494	At this point the system image is created.  All devices should be inactive and
495	the contents of memory should remain undisturbed while this happens, so that the
496	image forms an atomic snapshot of the system state.
497	
498	    5.	The thaw_noirq phase is analogous to the resume_noirq phase discussed
499		above.  The main difference is that its methods can assume the device is
500		in the same state as at the end of the freeze_noirq phase.
501	
502	    6.	The thaw_early phase is analogous to the resume_early phase described
503		above.  Its methods should undo the actions of the preceding
504		freeze_late, if necessary.
505	
506	    7.	The thaw phase is analogous to the resume phase discussed above.  Its
507		methods should bring the device back to an operating state, so that it
508		can be used for saving the image if necessary.
509	
510	    8.	The complete phase is discussed in the "Leaving System Suspend" section
511		above.
512	
513	At this point the system image is saved, and the devices then need to be
514	prepared for the upcoming system shutdown.  This is much like suspending them
515	before putting the system into the freeze, standby or memory sleep state,
516	and the phases are similar.
517	
518	    9.	The prepare phase is discussed above.
519	
520	    10.	The poweroff phase is analogous to the suspend phase.
521	
522	    11.	The poweroff_late phase is analogous to the suspend_late phase.
523	
524	    12.	The poweroff_noirq phase is analogous to the suspend_noirq phase.
525	
526	The poweroff, poweroff_late and poweroff_noirq callbacks should do essentially
527	the same things as the suspend, suspend_late and suspend_noirq callbacks,
528	respectively.  The only notable difference is that they need not store the
529	device register values, because the registers should already have been stored
530	during the freeze, freeze_late or freeze_noirq phases.
531	
532	
533	Leaving Hibernation
534	-------------------
535	Resuming from hibernation is, again, more complicated than resuming from a sleep
536	state in which the contents of main memory are preserved, because it requires
537	a system image to be loaded into memory and the pre-hibernation memory contents
538	to be restored before control can be passed back to the image kernel.
539	
540	Although in principle, the image might be loaded into memory and the
541	pre-hibernation memory contents restored by the boot loader, in practice this
542	can't be done because boot loaders aren't smart enough and there is no
543	established protocol for passing the necessary information.  So instead, the
544	boot loader loads a fresh instance of the kernel, called the boot kernel, into
545	memory and passes control to it in the usual way.  Then the boot kernel reads
546	the system image, restores the pre-hibernation memory contents, and passes
547	control to the image kernel.  Thus two different kernels are involved in
548	resuming from hibernation.  In fact, the boot kernel may be completely different
549	from the image kernel: a different configuration and even a different version.
550	This has important consequences for device drivers and their subsystems.
551	
552	To be able to load the system image into memory, the boot kernel needs to
553	include at least a subset of device drivers allowing it to access the storage
554	medium containing the image, although it doesn't need to include all of the
555	drivers present in the image kernel.  After the image has been loaded, the
556	devices managed by the boot kernel need to be prepared for passing control back
557	to the image kernel.  This is very similar to the initial steps involved in
558	creating a system image, and it is accomplished in the same way, using prepare,
559	freeze, and freeze_noirq phases.  However the devices affected by these phases
560	are only those having drivers in the boot kernel; other devices will still be in
561	whatever state the boot loader left them.
562	
563	Should the restoration of the pre-hibernation memory contents fail, the boot
564	kernel would go through the "thawing" procedure described above, using the
565	thaw_noirq, thaw, and complete phases, and then continue running normally.  This
566	happens only rarely.  Most often the pre-hibernation memory contents are
567	restored successfully and control is passed to the image kernel, which then
568	becomes responsible for bringing the system back to the working state.
569	
570	To achieve this, the image kernel must restore the devices' pre-hibernation
571	functionality.  The operation is much like waking up from the memory sleep
572	state, although it involves different phases:
573	
574		restore_noirq, restore_early, restore, complete
575	
576	    1.	The restore_noirq phase is analogous to the resume_noirq phase.
577	
578	    2.	The restore_early phase is analogous to the resume_early phase.
579	
580	    3.	The restore phase is analogous to the resume phase.
581	
582	    4.	The complete phase is discussed above.
583	
584	The main difference from resume[_early|_noirq] is that restore[_early|_noirq]
585	must assume the device has been accessed and reconfigured by the boot loader or
586	the boot kernel.  Consequently the state of the device may be different from the
587	state remembered from the freeze, freeze_late and freeze_noirq phases.  The
588	device may even need to be reset and completely re-initialized.  In many cases
589	this difference doesn't matter, so the resume[_early|_noirq] and
590	restore[_early|_norq] method pointers can be set to the same routines.
591	Nevertheless, different callback pointers are used in case there is a situation
592	where it actually does matter.
593	
594	
595	Device Power Management Domains
596	-------------------------------
597	Sometimes devices share reference clocks or other power resources.  In those
598	cases it generally is not possible to put devices into low-power states
599	individually.  Instead, a set of devices sharing a power resource can be put
600	into a low-power state together at the same time by turning off the shared
601	power resource.  Of course, they also need to be put into the full-power state
602	together, by turning the shared power resource on.  A set of devices with this
603	property is often referred to as a power domain.
604	
605	Support for power domains is provided through the pm_domain field of struct
606	device.  This field is a pointer to an object of type struct dev_pm_domain,
607	defined in include/linux/pm.h, providing a set of power management callbacks
608	analogous to the subsystem-level and device driver callbacks that are executed
609	for the given device during all power transitions, instead of the respective
610	subsystem-level callbacks.  Specifically, if a device's pm_domain pointer is
611	not NULL, the ->suspend() callback from the object pointed to by it will be
612	executed instead of its subsystem's (e.g. bus type's) ->suspend() callback and
613	analogously for all of the remaining callbacks.  In other words, power
614	management domain callbacks, if defined for the given device, always take
615	precedence over the callbacks provided by the device's subsystem (e.g. bus
616	type).
617	
618	The support for device power management domains is only relevant to platforms
619	needing to use the same device driver power management callbacks in many
620	different power domain configurations and wanting to avoid incorporating the
621	support for power domains into subsystem-level callbacks, for example by
622	modifying the platform bus type.  Other platforms need not implement it or take
623	it into account in any way.
624	
625	
626	Device Low Power (suspend) States
627	---------------------------------
628	Device low-power states aren't standard.  One device might only handle
629	"on" and "off", while another might support a dozen different versions of
630	"on" (how many engines are active?), plus a state that gets back to "on"
631	faster than from a full "off".
632	
633	Some busses define rules about what different suspend states mean.  PCI
634	gives one example:  after the suspend sequence completes, a non-legacy
635	PCI device may not perform DMA or issue IRQs, and any wakeup events it
636	issues would be issued through the PME# bus signal.  Plus, there are
637	several PCI-standard device states, some of which are optional.
638	
639	In contrast, integrated system-on-chip processors often use IRQs as the
640	wakeup event sources (so drivers would call enable_irq_wake) and might
641	be able to treat DMA completion as a wakeup event (sometimes DMA can stay
642	active too, it'd only be the CPU and some peripherals that sleep).
643	
644	Some details here may be platform-specific.  Systems may have devices that
645	can be fully active in certain sleep states, such as an LCD display that's
646	refreshed using DMA while most of the system is sleeping lightly ... and
647	its frame buffer might even be updated by a DSP or other non-Linux CPU while
648	the Linux control processor stays idle.
649	
650	Moreover, the specific actions taken may depend on the target system state.
651	One target system state might allow a given device to be very operational;
652	another might require a hard shut down with re-initialization on resume.
653	And two different target systems might use the same device in different
654	ways; the aforementioned LCD might be active in one product's "standby",
655	but a different product using the same SOC might work differently.
656	
657	
658	Power Management Notifiers
659	--------------------------
660	There are some operations that cannot be carried out by the power management
661	callbacks discussed above, because the callbacks occur too late or too early.
662	To handle these cases, subsystems and device drivers may register power
663	management notifiers that are called before tasks are frozen and after they have
664	been thawed.  Generally speaking, the PM notifiers are suitable for performing
665	actions that either require user space to be available, or at least won't
666	interfere with user space.
667	
668	For details refer to Documentation/power/notifiers.txt.
669	
670	
671	Runtime Power Management
672	========================
673	Many devices are able to dynamically power down while the system is still
674	running. This feature is useful for devices that are not being used, and
675	can offer significant power savings on a running system.  These devices
676	often support a range of runtime power states, which might use names such
677	as "off", "sleep", "idle", "active", and so on.  Those states will in some
678	cases (like PCI) be partially constrained by the bus the device uses, and will
679	usually include hardware states that are also used in system sleep states.
680	
681	A system-wide power transition can be started while some devices are in low
682	power states due to runtime power management.  The system sleep PM callbacks
683	should recognize such situations and react to them appropriately, but the
684	necessary actions are subsystem-specific.
685	
686	In some cases the decision may be made at the subsystem level while in other
687	cases the device driver may be left to decide.  In some cases it may be
688	desirable to leave a suspended device in that state during a system-wide power
689	transition, but in other cases the device must be put back into the full-power
690	state temporarily, for example so that its system wakeup capability can be
691	disabled.  This all depends on the hardware and the design of the subsystem and
692	device driver in question.
693	
694	During system-wide resume from a sleep state it's easiest to put devices into
695	the full-power state, as explained in Documentation/power/runtime_pm.txt.  Refer
696	to that document for more information regarding this particular issue as well as
697	for information on the device runtime power management framework in general.
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