About Kernel Documentation Linux Kernel Contact Linux Resources Linux Blog

Documentation / powerpc / transactional_memory.txt

Custom Search

Based on kernel version 4.1. Page generated on 2015-06-28 12:14 EST.

1	Transactional Memory support
2	============================
4	POWER kernel support for this feature is currently limited to supporting
5	its use by user programs.  It is not currently used by the kernel itself.
7	This file aims to sum up how it is supported by Linux and what behaviour you
8	can expect from your user programs.
11	Basic overview
12	==============
14	Hardware Transactional Memory is supported on POWER8 processors, and is a
15	feature that enables a different form of atomic memory access.  Several new
16	instructions are presented to delimit transactions; transactions are
17	guaranteed to either complete atomically or roll back and undo any partial
18	changes.
20	A simple transaction looks like this:
22	begin_move_money:
23	  tbegin
24	  beq   abort_handler
26	  ld    r4, SAVINGS_ACCT(r3)
27	  ld    r5, CURRENT_ACCT(r3)
28	  subi  r5, r5, 1
29	  addi  r4, r4, 1
30	  std   r4, SAVINGS_ACCT(r3)
31	  std   r5, CURRENT_ACCT(r3)
33	  tend
35	  b     continue
37	abort_handler:
38	  ... test for odd failures ...
40	  /* Retry the transaction if it failed because it conflicted with
41	   * someone else: */
42	  b     begin_move_money
45	The 'tbegin' instruction denotes the start point, and 'tend' the end point.
46	Between these points the processor is in 'Transactional' state; any memory
47	references will complete in one go if there are no conflicts with other
48	transactional or non-transactional accesses within the system.  In this
49	example, the transaction completes as though it were normal straight-line code
50	IF no other processor has touched SAVINGS_ACCT(r3) or CURRENT_ACCT(r3); an
51	atomic move of money from the current account to the savings account has been
52	performed.  Even though the normal ld/std instructions are used (note no
53	lwarx/stwcx), either *both* SAVINGS_ACCT(r3) and CURRENT_ACCT(r3) will be
54	updated, or neither will be updated.
56	If, in the meantime, there is a conflict with the locations accessed by the
57	transaction, the transaction will be aborted by the CPU.  Register and memory
58	state will roll back to that at the 'tbegin', and control will continue from
59	'tbegin+4'.  The branch to abort_handler will be taken this second time; the
60	abort handler can check the cause of the failure, and retry.
62	Checkpointed registers include all GPRs, FPRs, VRs/VSRs, LR, CCR/CR, CTR, FPCSR
63	and a few other status/flag regs; see the ISA for details.
65	Causes of transaction aborts
66	============================
68	- Conflicts with cache lines used by other processors
69	- Signals
70	- Context switches
71	- See the ISA for full documentation of everything that will abort transactions.
74	Syscalls
75	========
77	Performing syscalls from within transaction is not recommended, and can lead
78	to unpredictable results.
80	Syscalls do not by design abort transactions, but beware: The kernel code will
81	not be running in transactional state.  The effect of syscalls will always
82	remain visible, but depending on the call they may abort your transaction as a
83	side-effect, read soon-to-be-aborted transactional data that should not remain
84	invisible, etc.  If you constantly retry a transaction that constantly aborts
85	itself by calling a syscall, you'll have a livelock & make no progress.
87	Simple syscalls (e.g. sigprocmask()) "could" be OK.  Even things like write()
88	from, say, printf() should be OK as long as the kernel does not access any
89	memory that was accessed transactionally.
91	Consider any syscalls that happen to work as debug-only -- not recommended for
92	production use.  Best to queue them up till after the transaction is over.
95	Signals
96	=======
98	Delivery of signals (both sync and async) during transactions provides a second
99	thread state (ucontext/mcontext) to represent the second transactional register
100	state.  Signal delivery 'treclaim's to capture both register states, so signals
101	abort transactions.  The usual ucontext_t passed to the signal handler
102	represents the checkpointed/original register state; the signal appears to have
103	arisen at 'tbegin+4'.
105	If the sighandler ucontext has uc_link set, a second ucontext has been
106	delivered.  For future compatibility the MSR.TS field should be checked to
107	determine the transactional state -- if so, the second ucontext in uc->uc_link
108	represents the active transactional registers at the point of the signal.
110	For 64-bit processes, uc->uc_mcontext.regs->msr is a full 64-bit MSR and its TS
111	field shows the transactional mode.
113	For 32-bit processes, the mcontext's MSR register is only 32 bits; the top 32
114	bits are stored in the MSR of the second ucontext, i.e. in
115	uc->uc_link->uc_mcontext.regs->msr.  The top word contains the transactional
116	state TS.
118	However, basic signal handlers don't need to be aware of transactions
119	and simply returning from the handler will deal with things correctly:
121	Transaction-aware signal handlers can read the transactional register state
122	from the second ucontext.  This will be necessary for crash handlers to
123	determine, for example, the address of the instruction causing the SIGSEGV.
125	Example signal handler:
127	    void crash_handler(int sig, siginfo_t *si, void *uc)
128	    {
129	      ucontext_t *ucp = uc;
130	      ucontext_t *transactional_ucp = ucp->uc_link;
132	      if (ucp_link) {
133	        u64 msr = ucp->uc_mcontext.regs->msr;
134	        /* May have transactional ucontext! */
135	#ifndef __powerpc64__
136	        msr |= ((u64)transactional_ucp->uc_mcontext.regs->msr) << 32;
137	#endif
138	        if (MSR_TM_ACTIVE(msr)) {
139	           /* Yes, we crashed during a transaction.  Oops. */
140	   fprintf(stderr, "Transaction to be restarted at 0x%llx, but "
141	                           "crashy instruction was at 0x%llx\n",
142	                           ucp->uc_mcontext.regs->nip,
143	                           transactional_ucp->uc_mcontext.regs->nip);
144	        }
145	      }
147	      fix_the_problem(ucp->dar);
148	    }
150	When in an active transaction that takes a signal, we need to be careful with
151	the stack.  It's possible that the stack has moved back up after the tbegin.
152	The obvious case here is when the tbegin is called inside a function that
153	returns before a tend.  In this case, the stack is part of the checkpointed
154	transactional memory state.  If we write over this non transactionally or in
155	suspend, we are in trouble because if we get a tm abort, the program counter and
156	stack pointer will be back at the tbegin but our in memory stack won't be valid
157	anymore.
159	To avoid this, when taking a signal in an active transaction, we need to use
160	the stack pointer from the checkpointed state, rather than the speculated
161	state.  This ensures that the signal context (written tm suspended) will be
162	written below the stack required for the rollback.  The transaction is aborted
163	because of the treclaim, so any memory written between the tbegin and the
164	signal will be rolled back anyway.
166	For signals taken in non-TM or suspended mode, we use the
167	normal/non-checkpointed stack pointer.
170	Failure cause codes used by kernel
171	==================================
173	These are defined in <asm/reg.h>, and distinguish different reasons why the
174	kernel aborted a transaction:
176	 TM_CAUSE_RESCHED       Thread was rescheduled.
177	 TM_CAUSE_TLBI          Software TLB invalid.
178	 TM_CAUSE_FAC_UNAV      FP/VEC/VSX unavailable trap.
179	 TM_CAUSE_SYSCALL       Currently unused; future syscalls that must abort
180	                        transactions for consistency will use this.
181	 TM_CAUSE_SIGNAL        Signal delivered.
182	 TM_CAUSE_MISC          Currently unused.
183	 TM_CAUSE_ALIGNMENT     Alignment fault.
184	 TM_CAUSE_EMULATE       Emulation that touched memory.
186	These can be checked by the user program's abort handler as TEXASR[0:7].  If
187	bit 7 is set, it indicates that the error is consider persistent.  For example
188	a TM_CAUSE_ALIGNMENT will be persistent while a TM_CAUSE_RESCHED will not.
190	GDB
191	===
193	GDB and ptrace are not currently TM-aware.  If one stops during a transaction,
194	it looks like the transaction has just started (the checkpointed state is
195	presented).  The transaction cannot then be continued and will take the failure
196	handler route.  Furthermore, the transactional 2nd register state will be
197	inaccessible.  GDB can currently be used on programs using TM, but not sensibly
198	in parts within transactions.
Hide Line Numbers
About Kernel Documentation Linux Kernel Contact Linux Resources Linux Blog

Information is copyright its respective author. All material is available from the Linux Kernel Source distributed under a GPL License. This page is provided as a free service by mjmwired.net.