Personal Fedora 9 Installation Guide

Mauriat Miranda (http://www.mjmwired.net/contact/)

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Published: 11 May 2008 (updated: 19 November 2008)

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This guide a personal configuration of Fedora 9. This page is to provide some common installation tips that people may find useful. Keep in mind this works for me, so take care in doing proper backups to critical files whenever trying something. This guide was simultaneously authored testing a AMD64 Desktop running i386 (32-bit) Fedora and Intel DuoCore Laptop running x86_64 (64-bit) Fedora.


Installation Media

Fedora 9 is provided as either CD-ROM's or DVD-ROM's for installation. You can either download the multiple CD sets or single DVD for installation. The DVD-ROM disk is preferred and recommended method of installation. Booting the DVD or booting from CD#1 will start the installer which will allow Fedora to be installed on your computer or for you to upgrade an existing Fedora on your machine. The following steps were done with the single DVD installation.

There are also "LiveCD's" which can be booted and will run a basic Fedora 9 in memory while also providing a simpler method of installation (not as complete at the DVD or multi-CD method). The default LiveCD ships with Gnome (ex: Fedora-9-Live-i386.iso). There is a specific LiveCD that ships with KDE (this is specifically marked). Both provide an installer however they come with significantly less software than the DVD. Also they require more memory in order to be useable. The LiveCD may be useful for demonstration.

Note: To upgrade an existing Fedora installation you cannot use a Live disk.


Physical Installation

It is highly recommended you read the Fedora Release Notes and official Installation Guide before installing Fedora.

An additional recommendation is to read Common Problems before installing.

Obtain the Fedora 9 DVD image or multi-CD set images from a Fedora mirror (or use the torrent) and burn to DVD. (For more information on how to download Fedora CD's or DVD).

Boot from the DVD. If you choose to use a LiveCD please note that the following steps will differ.

I did a Custom Install of Fedora 9.

Install the selected packages and reboot.

For users who opted to install grub on the first sector of the / partition instead of the MBR, you will be required to setup NTLDR to boot Linux.

For the first boot:

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Setup sudo

07 November 2007

Fedora, like all other Linux distributions, has a root user and has individual users. The root is the "superuser", somewhat similar to "Administrator" in Windows.

Use the personal account you created at First Boot for daily use root only for administration/configuration. To run as 'root' use su or sudo commands. However sudo requires setup. As root run:

echo 'loginname ALL=(ALL) ALL' >> /etc/sudoers

Where 'loginname' is your user account.
Use 'ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL' if you don't want to be prompted a password.
If you are prompted for a password with 'sudo' it is the user password, not root.

Example:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ su
Password:    <--- Enter root password

[root@charon mirandam]# echo 'mirandam ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL' >> /etc/sudoers
[root@charon mirandam]# exit
exit

The following is an example of how sudo lets you execute root commands:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ du -sh /root
du: `/root': Permission denied  <--- Fails!!!

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo du -sh /root
163M    /root                   <--- Works!!!

NOTE: Every command provided on this page will work if you remove sudo from the command. However this requires you must be logged in as 'root'. An alternative to using sudo is to use su to login as root, before executing a command.

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Setup yum

19 November 2008

Fedora uses yum to install and update its software. When connected to the internet it will automatically determine application dependencies.

Fedora Repositories

Fedora typically has 2 repositories enabled by default: fedora (the same packages that come on any combination of the CD's or DVD's) and updates (updated packages, newer than fedora repository).

These repositories 'sign' their RPM files to make sure they are valid when downloaded. Import the GPG keys to these repositories:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/*

NOTE: Due to security reasons a new repository was created after Fedora 9 was released: updates-newkey. This repository will automatically be configured and enabled when running an update. It is required that you run an update immediately after installing Fedora.

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum update yum
[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum update

Note that if you update just yum first, it is a small download. When you run the full update after that, you will have the advantage of using an updated/faster 'yum'.

Third Party Repositories

For applications that are against Fedora policies (MP3, DVD, MPEG, Binary Drivers, etc), a third party repository should be used. The recommended repository for Fedora is: RPMFusion. For the purpose of this guide, (most) all needs are met by the RPMFusion repository, other requirements are stated.

To set up the RPMFusion repositories:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo rpm -ivh http://download1.rpmfusion.org/free/fedora/rpmfusion-free-release-stable.noarch.rpm \
http://download1.rpmfusion.org/nonfree/fedora/rpmfusion-nonfree-release-stable.noarch.rpm

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-rpmfusion-*

Note: The RPMFusion project is a merging of the Livna and Freshrpms repositories with the exception of 1 file for DVD playback. If you updated from previously using Livna it is okay, 'yum' will update automatically, for example, read this post: Update to RPMFusion.

NOTE: YUM Installation Prompt

After yum downloads the application or update requested it will prompt to install. This is good for learners or to keep track of what is happening. Applications can possibly be UN-installed in a update as well. If you wish yum to automatically install downloads and make changes, run yum with the -y (answer "yes") option.

# sudo yum -y install application_name

NOTE: YUM Full System Updates

If you run the following, EVERY SINGLE RPM that has an available update through ANY repository will be updated.

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum update

Generally speaking this is highly recommended the FIRST time you install Fedora (if you have high speed internet). After that, full system updates become less common. Keep in mind that updates, may update all their dependancies, which can lead to long download times. Often a new update may break something that already worked. Please understand what you are doing before running continuous updates.

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Install Nvidia Driver

19 November 2008

Fedora recommends users install a 3rd-party RPM packaged driver instead of using the installer from Nvidia's website. Currently RPMFusion provides a well packaged driver with some extra utilities, installable via yum.

First, setup RPMFusion Repositories

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo rpm -ivh http://download1.rpmfusion.org/free/fedora/rpmfusion-free-release-stable.noarch.rpm \
http://download1.rpmfusion.org/nonfree/fedora/rpmfusion-nonfree-release-stable.noarch.rpm

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-rpmfusion-*

Install the nvidia driver through RPMFusion:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum install kmod-nvidia

If a kernel update is installed at the same time (most likely), then a reboot will be required. If not, then simply log out completely of Gnome or KDE and the Nvidia driver should load. The Nvidia logo will flash quickly once.

Matching kernel And kmod-nvidia Versions

In order for the kmod-nvidia driver package to install properly through yum it must find a matching version of the kernel. Usually this will be the latest version of the kernel. Since the driver comes from an RPMFusion mirror and the kernel comes from a Fedora mirror, it is quite possible the mirrors may be out of sync or one version of a package (kernel or kmod-nvidia) is newer that the other. For example the kernel is 2.6.27.5-37.fc9.i686 and the driver is: 2.6.27.5-41.fc9.i686

--> Finished Dependency Resolution
kmod-nvidia-2.6.27.5-41.fc9.i686-173.14.15-1.fc9.6.i686 from rpmfusion-nonfree-updates has depsolving problems
  --gt; Missing Dependency: kernel-uname-r = 2.6.27.5-41.fc9.i686 is needed by package kmod-nvidia-2.6.27.5-41.fc9.i686-173.14.15-1.fc9.6.i686 (rpmfusion-nonfree-updates)

[mirandam@charon ~]$ uname -r
2.6.27.5-37.fc9.i686

In this scenario is it is helpful to use the AKMOD system in RPMFusion. This will try to recompile the proper driver in order to match the available kernels. This helps when the mirrors are out of sync, or RPMFusion has problems updating their drivers, or if you tweak/custom build your kernel. In most situations the 'kmod' created by the AKMOD system will be the same as the one that is (or should be) on the yum mirror. (The only requirement is you have the Software Development packages installed, which is default on a DVD install.)

To use the AKMOD for Nvidia:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum install akmod-nvidia

Note: At least 1 reboot is required, for an example see the post: Fedora 9 Nvidia Update.

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Network Management

12 May 2008

Fedora 9 uses NetworkManager by default. While this has greatly improved networking for users with wireless and less common devices (mobile broadband, GSM, etc.) it may still have problems with some configurations. NetworkManager is still under constant development.

NOTE: The following steps do NOT apply to all users. NetworkManager is highly recommended for Laptop users, especially using wireless with security.

Startup Applications Requiring Network

Some applications require the network to be initialized during boot. If you are using NetworkManager and having these problems, edit /etc/sysconfig/network as 'root' and add the following line:
NETWORKWAIT=1. Or run:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo su -c 'echo NETWORKWAIT=1 >> /etc/sysconfig/network'

NetworkManager on Fixed Networks

On machines with a fixed networking device and a fixed IP address (e.g. desktop, server, appliance), it might be easier to disable NetworkManager and use the older network service. Note that the Fedora 9 installer disables the network service by default. To switch to using the network service:

First disable NetworkManager and prevent it from automatically loading:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /etc/init.d/NetworkManager stop
Stopping NetworkManager daemon:                            [  OK  ]

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /sbin/chkconfig --level 35 NetworkManager off

Next, configure your network settings:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo system-config-network

You should have an eth0 device already showing. To configure the IP settings click on Edit. Do not forget to set DNS on the DNS tab (if you're using fixed IP's). Make sure the eth0 is selected as Active. Then File > Save and quit.

Next, enable the service and make sure it loads at next boot:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /etc/init.d/network start
Bringing up loopback interface:                            [  OK  ]
Bringing up interface eth0:                                [  OK  ]

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /sbin/chkconfig --level 35 network on

While it may be possible to re-activate your network without a reboot, it may be recommended to reboot.

Some related information can be found on the Fedora Wiki.

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GCC Compatibility

11 May 2008

Fedora 9 ships and uses GCC 4.3. Some applications that were compiled with an older GCC (ex: 3.2) will require compatibility libraries. Make sure to have the following RPM's installed.

These are NOT included with the Fedora 9 DVD and must be downloaded online (ftp, yum, etc).

compat-libstdc++-33
compat-libstdc++-296

With 'yum', run:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum -y install compat-libstdc++-33 compat-libstdc++-296

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Install GCC 3.4

11 May 2008

This is an optional step.

Fedora 9 includes GCC 4.3 compiler, which is a relatively new version. Some applications will NOT compile in GCC 4.3. You can install GCC 3.4 to allow compiling applications which do not yet support GCC 4.1. Make sure to have the following RPM's installed.

These are NOT included with the Fedora 9 DVD and must be downloaded online (ftp, yum, etc).

compat-gcc-34
compat-gcc-34-c++

With 'yum', run:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum install compat-gcc-34 compat-gcc-34-c++

To use either, run gcc34 or g++34. I have more information on using alternate compilers.

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Install Realplayer

19 November 2008

Download RealPlayer 11.0 GOLD from: http://www.real.com/linux/.

Select: "Advanced Installation OptionsRedHat Package"

Install RealPlayer:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rpm -ivh RealPlayer11GOLD.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:RealPlayer             ########################################### [100%]

RealPlayer/HelixPlayer Forums: https://helixcommunity.org/projects/player/forums

NOTE: Totem issues: If the Totem-Mozilla-Plugin tries to load RealPlayer content instead of RealPlayer, try removing the plugin:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum remove totem-mozplugin

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Install MP3 Players

19 November 2008

Fedora ships without any form of MP3 playback. In order to add MP3 playback you must install from a 3rd party. The following requires the use of the RPMFusion repositories.

XMMS: simple, older GUI, minimalistic features (but still popular)

Audacious: (A fork of Beep Media Player - BMP). XMMS rebuilt to be a little bit more modern. Still basic but much better than XMMS.

Rhythmbox/Gstreamer - A simple audio application similar to iTunes layout.

Amarok - A modern feature rich media player application.

GNOME MP3 Preview:

K3B CD-Burner MP3 Audio Decoding:

Note: PulseAudio - I was able to run all these applications with either their default settings or using OSS/ALSA when PulseAudio was enabled.

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Install Media Players

19 November 2008

Fedora ships with a limited set of media player for both audio and video. For audio please read the MP3 player notes. For video and other multimedia (DVD, etc.) we will also be making use of a 3rd party repository: RPMFusion. Make sure to have the RPMFusion repositories configured before executing the following. Note that many "dependancies" in libraries, plugins and codecs are shared between these applications and also the MP3 player applications.

The most popular media players (in order) are: MPlayer, Xine and VLC. Each has its own strengths. Install whichever you prefer although the first 2 are recommended.

MPlayer - MPlayer comes in a command line only interface (mplayer) or skinable GUI and it also has a powerful encoding tool MEncoder (also great for ripping or compressing audio/video). Additionally there is a highly functional web plugin allowing for many popular formats in Firefox/Mozilla (WMV, QuickTime, etc.).

Xine - Xine is similar to MPlayer in many ways however lacking the command line application and encoder. However has fully supported DVD playback with proper navigation.

Binary Codecs - The MPlayer projects maintains a package full of binary codecs for which no directly open source option exists, some of these files include Windows DLL's. These are shared by both Xine and MPlayer. NOTE: There is significant variation depending on your architecture (i386, x86_64, ppc). The 32bit i386 works the best.

VLC - VLC is a simpler media player with an easy to use interface. It also supports DVD playback. While most needs should be met with Xine and MPlayer some prefer VLC.

DVD Playback - Due to non-technical reasons, the libdvdcss package currently exists in the Livna repository. Either use the Livna repository for this single package, or manually download and install it:

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Install Microsoft Truetype Fonts

11 May 2008

The official source for the package is http://corefonts.sourceforge.net/.

However using the information provided there will require installing xfs (font server) which has been deprecated since Fedora 8. Hence I am using the SPEC file provided on the Fedora-devel mailing list.

You have to build the RPM using the chosen SPEC file. For convenience I have created the RPM (please do not link directly to this file):

msttcore-fonts-2.0-2.noarch.rpm

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rpm -ivh msttcore-fonts-2.0-2.noarch.rpm

Note: If have upgraded from Fedora 8 or some a previous version of Fedora. Please see Fedora 8 - Truetype Fonts on removing the older packages.

Note: Fedora encourages the use of the Liberation Fonts. These should be installed by default (and included on the DVD), however if not, please run:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum install liberation-fonts

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Disable Unneeded Services/Daemons

11 May 2008

Information regarding services and their functions can be found on: Services in Fedora 9 (http://www.mjmwired.net/resources/mjm-services-f9.html).

For information on how to manage services in Fedora please read: Managing Services in Fedora (http://www.mjmwired.net/resources/mjm-fedora-manage-services.html).

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Adobe Flash Plugin

19 November 2008

The Adobe Flash plugin is available from Adobe's website. Users can install the RPM directly or use Adobe's YUM repository (recommended). Please note the plugin will not work directly on 64-bit browsers without some re-configuration.

For yum users (RECOMMENDED):

Install the Adobe YUM repository, and install through yum:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rpm -ivh http://linuxdownload.adobe.com/adobe-release/adobe-release-i386-1.0-1.noarch.rpm
[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-adobe-linux
[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo yum install flash-plugin

NOTE: The 'yum' installation should install the latest version of Flash, which at this time is version 10. If for whatever reason you are using version 9 and cannot hear sound in Flash, you require libflashsupport.

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo yum install libflashsupport

For manual installation: For users without yum:

Go to Install a different version of Adobe Flash Player and select:
Select an operating system: Linux
Select an installer type: .rpm for Linux.
Download the .rpm file (.rpm for Linux (x86)) and save it to disk.

Install:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rpm -ivh flash-plugin-10.0.12.36-release.i386.rpm

Installation on Fedora 64-bit

The following steps are required for Fedora 64-bit users.

First install the Adobe YUM repository, as stated above:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo mkdir -p /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins
[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo yum install nspluginwrapper.{i386,x86_64} pulseaudio-libs.i386 libflashsupport.i386
[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo yum install flash-plugin
[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo mozilla-plugin-config -i -g -v

This was adapted from the Fedora 9 Release Notes.

NOTE - PulseAudio - I was able to hear sound properly in both Gnome and KDE in Firefox when PulseAudio was enabled.

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Install Java Plugin

19 November 2008

With the release of Fedora 9, OpenJDK (based off of Sun Java) will replace IcedTea which was available in Fedora 8. The standard installation of Fedora 9 will install OpenJDK. More information is provided in the Fedora 9 Release Notes.

OpenJDK will most likely be installed by default with Fedora 9. However if not it can be installed using YUM:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum install java-1.6.0-openjdk java-1.6.0-openjdk-plugin

With OpenJDK installed, Java application and Web applets should automatically work. Unfortunately many applets may not run properly and the OpenJDK has some limitations.

Using Sun Java Instead

NOTE: At this time the following instructions ONLY apply to Fedora 32-bit. For 64-bit users please use OpenJDK for now.

If you require Sun Java or if OpenJDK does not work properly, you can download Sun Java and use it in Fedora. While Sun does provide an RPM for installation, it is NOT recommended to be used.

Download the Java package from:
http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index.jsp

Select: Java SE Runtime Environment (JRE) 6 Update 10 (the JDK is for developers)

On the next page, select "Linux" for Platform and the Language (Multi-language). Also accept the license agreement, and hit "Continue".

On the next page, select:

Java SE Runtime Environment 6u10
jre-6u10-linux-i586.bin                 19.16 MB

To install:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sh jre-6u10-linux-i586.bin
(hit 'space' till it reaches the end, then type 'yes')

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo mv -f jre1.6* /opt/jre1.6

When running the java command, Fedora will prefer to use OpenJDK, in order to use Sun Java use the alternatives command:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo /usr/sbin/alternatives --install /usr/bin/java java /opt/jre1.6/bin/java 20000

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo /usr/sbin/alternatives --install /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/libjavaplugin.so \
libjavaplugin.so /opt/jre1.6/plugin/i386/ns7/libjavaplugin_oji.so 20000

Note: If you wish to switch back to OpenJDK you can run the following commands one by one to switch between the OpenJDK and Sun Java:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /usr/sbin/alternatives --config java
[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /usr/sbin/alternatives --config libjavaplugin.so

To update: If you wish update the JRE package, simply delete the /opt/jre1.6 directory and copy the newer download to /opt/jre1.6. You do NOT have to re-run alternatives those settings should remain intact. For example:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rm -rf /opt/jre1.6
[mirandam@charon Download]$ mv -f jre1.6* /opt/jre1.6

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Install Adobe Acrobat

19 November 2008

To view PDF files, Fedora includes evince, however this application is very basic and may not work with every feature of some PDF files.

For yum users:

Install the Adobe YUM repository, and install through yum:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rpm -ivh http://linuxdownload.adobe.com/adobe-release/adobe-release-i386-1.0-1.noarch.rpm
[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-adobe-linux

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo yum install AdobeReader_enu

NOTE: The above uses the English version: enu. To see which languages are supported by Adobe's YUM repository, run the following command:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ yum list AdobeReader\*

Other languages are installed similar to english for example: AdobeReader_fra, if you are unsure which package is correct, run:
yum info AdobeReader_fra for more information. Otherwise install manually as described below. (Note: 64-bit users are recommended to use yum to resolve all the 32-bit i386 dependancies.)

For manual installation: For users without yum:

Download Acrobat from: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2_allversions.html

Select:
Operating system: Linux
Version: Linux - x86 (.rpm)
Your language.

The version of Adobe Acrobat Reader currently is 8.1.3 and the download size is between 40-60MB depending on your language. Not all languages are supported under Linux.

[mirandam@charon Download]$ su -c 'rpm -ivh AdobeReader_enu-8.1.3-1.i486.rpm'
Password: 
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:AdobeReader_enu        ########################################### [100%]

Note: Do NOT use sudo when installing the RPM. Either install it when logged in as root or use the su -c command.

Acrobat Browser Plugin

The browser plugin MAY automatically install in multiple different locations possibly including ~/.mozilla/plugins, /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins and /usr/lib/firefox-x.x.x.x/plugins. I deleted everyone except /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins

[mirandam@charon ]$ sudo rm -rf /usr/lib/firefox-3.0.4/plugins/nppdf.so
[mirandam@charon ]$ sudo rm -rf /root/.mozilla/plugins/nppdf.so
[mirandam@charon ]$ sudo rm -rf ~/.mozilla/plugins/nppdf.so

64-bit Users - run the following to allow the Acrobat plugin to be detected by Firefox:

[mirandam@phoebe ~]$ sudo /usr/bin/mozilla-plugin-config -i -f

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Setup Samba - Filesharing with Windows

12 May 2008

If you have other Windows computers on your Lan and want to share files with them, you must setup Samba.

To setup Samba you must (1) install samba, (2) add you 'shares', (3) add users, (4) start Samba service and (5) manage security options (Firewall and SELinux).

1. Install Samba

It is best to have Samba installed in the installation process. If not yum users can install using: Add/Remove Software > Servers > Windows File Server, alternatively on the command line:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum install samba samba-client

Users without yum can install the following packages from their DVD (or download): samba, samba-common, samba-client.

2. Add Shares

You must edit /etc/samba/smb.conf as root: (use nano instead of gedit if you do not have a GUI)

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

Set your Windows Workgroup name in [global] section.

Added shares at the end of the file. Example:

[c_drive]
   path = /media/c_drive
   public = yes
   writable = no
[netshare]
   path = /data/
   public = yes
   writable = yes

If 'writable' the location must be writable in Linux first. Additionally permissions must match (for example: drw-rw-rw-).

If home data (all personal files under /home/username) is to be accessible, then set 'browseable = yes' under [homes] (~line 250). This configuration file is very descriptive, read through it to get more ideas or information.

3. Add Users

To access shares, you must be a valid user. Add valid users AND passwords using the smbpasswd command.

This login name WILL be the login name and password you use from Windows to access your Linux computer. The password does NOT need to match your Linux password.

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo smbpasswd -a username
New SMB password:
Retype new SMB password:
account_policy_get: (warnings ignored)
Added user username.

(Note: 'username' MUST be a valid account on the Fedora machine)

4. Start Samba Service

Run samba and check for any errors:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /etc/init.d/smb start
Starting SMB services:                                     [  OK  ]

Use chkconfig or serviceconf to enable samba (smb) in both runlevels 3 and 5. This will make sure to run Samba each time Fedora boots.

[mirandam@charon ~]$ /sbin/chkconfig --list smb
smb             0:off   1:off   2:off   3:off   4:off   5:off   6:off
[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /sbin/chkconfig --level 35 smb on
[mirandam@charon ~]$ /sbin/chkconfig --list smb
smb             0:off   1:off   2:off   3:on    4:off   5:on    6:off

Restart Samba for every change to users/passwords or 'smb.conf'

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /etc/init.d/smb restart
Shutting down SMB services:                                [  OK  ]
Starting SMB services:                                     [  OK  ]

5. Managing Security for Samba

Firewall

If you are using a Firewall (this is default in Fedora 9) then run:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo system-config-firewall

To allow Samba access to work through the firewall you must set 'Samba' as a 'Trusted Service' and hit 'Apply'. Alternatively if you are only using the shell and do not have access to a graphical X-server, you can run:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo system-config-firewall-tui

To allow Samba access to work through the firewall, use <Tab> to go to Customize. In the Trusted Services: scroll down to Samba, hit <Enter> and use <Tab> to go to Ok.

SELinux

SELinux has significant control over restricting different parts of Samba. Run system-config-selinux. Please read lines #23 - #51 in /etc/samba/smb.conf for a better explanation. Alternatively, you can run:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo system-config-selinux

Go to Boolean and type 'samba' in the Filter (without quotes).

The following is NOT complete and is NOT recommended but is a quick enable to allow Samba to work permissively through SELinux.

[mirandam@charon ~]# sudo /usr/sbin/setsebool -P samba_export_all_rw on

You can ignore SELinux at this point and try to access your shares in Windows and SELinux TroubleShooter should give an automatic pop-up in GNOME explaining what is wrong. If you follow those recommendations you most likely will be more secure.

For any changes made above to the SELinux settings or smb.conf, it is recommended to restart Samba.

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Mount NTFS Partitions

12 May 2008

Windows uses a different filesystem (NTFS) to store files. However NTFS-3G provides support to read and write NTFS partitions safely. These should be automatically installed with Fedora 9.

Gnome Users - Users of the Gnome desktop environment will find that they can mount NTFS (or any partitions) by clicking on them through the Computer icon on the desktop (root password will be required).

If you do not use Gnome, are having problems with GNOME/KDE, or do not even use X-windows, the following instructions are still valid. I find the following steps more reliable.

To setup NTFS access you must (1) install NTFS support, (2) check how many partitions you have, (3) create mount points, (4) mount partitions, and (5) update fstab to mount at next boot.

1. Install NTFS Support

The software required for NTFS support is included in the DVD installation. If not, install using yum:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum install fuse fuse-libs ntfs-3g

Users without yum, either download or use your Fedora 9 DVD to install the following RPM's: fuse, fuse-lib and ntfs-3g.

2. Check Your Partitions

Use fdisk to list partitions. Most ATA hard drives will be /dev/sda. Drives may also show up as /dev/sdb depending on your configuration.

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo /sbin/fdisk -lu /dev/sda | grep NTFS
/dev/sda1   *          63    33559784    16779861    7  HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sda2        33559785    67119569    16779892+   7  HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sda3        67119570   100679354    16779892+   7  HPFS/NTFS

Usually the first will be a drive "letter": C drive, next D, etc. Hence /dev/sda1 is my C:\ drive used by Windows.

3. Create Mount Points

For every partition in step 2 that you wish to access, you will need a "mount point". A mount point is just a directory. Common directories are: /media/ and /mnt/. Use whichever you like, but be consistent.

[mirandam@charon ~]$ cd /media/
[mirandam@charon media]$ sudo mkdir c_drive d_drive e_drive

You do not have to use these names, if you prefer to create folders such as 'movies', 'documents', or 'winxp', any name will work (recommended without spaces).

4. Mount Partitions

Using the NTFS-3G we can either mount the NTFS partitions read-only or read-write. For new users, read-only is recommended.

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/c_drive -t ntfs-3g -r -o umask=0222
[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo mount /dev/sda2 /media/d_drive -t ntfs-3g -r -o umask=0222
[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo mount /dev/sda3 /media/e_drive -t ntfs-3g -r -o umask=0222

Read/Write Access: The above is for read-only access. In order to mount read/write, you must use the -rw -o umask=0000. Example:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/c_drive -t ntfs-3g -rw -o umask=0000

HIGHLY RECOMMENDED: Please run man mount to understand what umask= does.

5. Update /etc/fstab

Every time Fedora boots, the partitions must be mounted. To automatically mount, you must edit /etc/fstab.

Open /etc/fstab in an editor: (use nano instead of gedit if you do not have a GUI)

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo gedit /etc/fstab

Add these lines to the END of the file:

/dev/sda1   /media/c_drive     ntfs-3g    ro,defaults,umask=0222 0 0
/dev/sda2   /media/d_drive     ntfs-3g    ro,defaults,umask=0222 0 0
/dev/sda3   /media/e_drive     ntfs-3g    ro,defaults,umask=0222 0 0

Read/Write Access: The above is for read-only access. In order to mount read/write, you must use the rw,defaults,umask=0000. Example:

/dev/sda1   /media/c_drive     ntfs-3g    rw,defaults,umask=0000 0 0

Done!

NOTE for FAT32 users

If you have FAT32 or FAT16 partitions, instead of ntfs-3g above you can use vfat to mount your partitions. No extra modules or downloads are required, this is built into the kernel. Just replace vfat for every place we have ntfs-3g when mounting and when editting /etc/fstab. Keep in mind that FAT partitions are read-write supported.

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Install Kernel Headers

12 May 2008

This package provides kernel headers and makefiles sufficient to build modules against the kernel package. The kernel headers are typically necessary if you require to install a driver or some 3rd party software. If a driver requires kernel sources, it may be sufficient to install only the kernel headers.

The kernel headers The Kernel Headers are available through the kernel-devel RPM. This may or may not be installed by Fedora. This package can be installed from your Fedora DVD or online through FTP or yum.

Look on online in either the Fedora repository or Update repository and make sure you match your system, using the uname command. For example:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ uname -r
2.6.25-14.fc9.i686

Select: kernel-devel-kernel-devel-2.6.25-14.fc9.i686.rpm

If you have updated your kernel (using yum), then it is recommended you use yum to install the package:

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum install kernel-devel

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Install Kernel Source

12 May 2008

Installing the kernel source is typically NOT needed unless you wish to re-compile your kernel or for some special development. However in some cases the kernel headers may be required.

There are 3 basic steps involved in installing the kernel source.

  1. Download the desired kernel source (matching your current kernel if required)
  2. Installing the SRC.RPM package
  3. Using rpmbuild to prepare the source into a usable state

NOTE: Following these steps will consume about 400MB of disk space!

NOTE: Fedora recommends you execute these steps as a user and not as 'root'.

1. Download the Kernel Source

Obtaining Kernel Source (for default Fedora 9 kernel)

The default kernel source can be found through any Fedora mirror. Look in the directory "/source/SRPMS/" under the "/9/" directory . For example: http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/releases/9/Fedora/source/SRPMS/.

kernel-2.6.25-14.fc9.src.rpm 01-May-2008 10:59 48M

Obtaining Kernel Source (for an updated Fedora 9 kernel)

If you updated your kernel, then the typically the last 2 or 3 releases of the source of the kernel will be available though the Fedora updates. IF YOU REQUIRE you can (try to) match the kernel source with your running kernel.

Look in the update directory on most Fedora mirror sites. For example: http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/updates/9/SRPMS/.

Obtaining Kernel Source through 'yum' (for latest Fedora 9 kernel)

There are yum utilities which will download the LATEST kernel source. If it does not find anything, then there are no updates (yet) use the DEFAULT Fedora kernel source.

[mirandam@charon ~]$ sudo yum install yum-utils rpmdevtools
[mirandam@charon ~]$ cd Download
[mirandam@charon Download]$ yumdownloader --source kernel

2. Install the Kernel Source

Install the kernel.src.rpm (into your user/rpmbuild directory) that you chose to download in the previous steps.

[mirandam@charon Download]$ rpm -ivh kernel-2.6.25-14.fc9.src.rpm

Ignore group kojibuilder does not exist or user kojibuilder does not exist warnings.

This will install the kernel source into your user directory (/home/username/rpmbuild). If you prefer it to be in the sytem location (/usr/src/redhat) then instead run:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rpm -ivh kernel-2.6.25-14.fc9.src.rpm

3. Prepare the Source

To prepare the source to be useable:

[mirandam@charon Download]$ rpmbuild -bp --target=$(uname -m) ~/rpmbuild/SPECS/kernel.spec

or if you prefer to run as 'root':

[mirandam@charon Download]$ sudo rpmbuild -bp --target=$(uname -m) /usr/src/redhat/SPECS/kernel.spec

The source files will be properly located in ~/rpmbuild/BUILD/kernel-2.6.25/ (for user) or /usr/src/redhat/BUILD/kernel-2.6.25/ (if run as root). There are 2 useful directories:

  1. linux-2.6.25.ARCH/
    This will have the standard kernel.org kernel WITH Fedora patches and updates. The ARCH architecture will match the output of uname -m, usually i686. You may use noarch for the --target= option if you wish.
  2. vanilla-2.6.25
    This will have the standard kernel.org kernel ONLY (no patches or updates).

NOTE: The process Fedora uses to build and configure kernels can be found in greater depth on the Fedora Wiki. The above information is very basic and meant to allow access to the source and not necessarily build it.

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More Information

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