Documentation / admin-guide / cgroup-v1 / blkio-controller.rst


Based on kernel version 5.9. Page generated on 2020-10-14 09:35 EST.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296
===================
Block IO Controller
===================

Overview
========
cgroup subsys "blkio" implements the block io controller. There seems to be
a need of various kinds of IO control policies (like proportional BW, max BW)
both at leaf nodes as well as at intermediate nodes in a storage hierarchy.
Plan is to use the same cgroup based management interface for blkio controller
and based on user options switch IO policies in the background.

One IO control policy is throttling policy which can be used to
specify upper IO rate limits on devices. This policy is implemented in
generic block layer and can be used on leaf nodes as well as higher
level logical devices like device mapper.

HOWTO
=====
Throttling/Upper Limit policy
-----------------------------
- Enable Block IO controller::

	CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP=y

- Enable throttling in block layer::

	CONFIG_BLK_DEV_THROTTLING=y

- Mount blkio controller (see cgroups.txt, Why are cgroups needed?)::

        mount -t cgroup -o blkio none /sys/fs/cgroup/blkio

- Specify a bandwidth rate on particular device for root group. The format
  for policy is "<major>:<minor>  <bytes_per_second>"::

        echo "8:16  1048576" > /sys/fs/cgroup/blkio/blkio.throttle.read_bps_device

  Above will put a limit of 1MB/second on reads happening for root group
  on device having major/minor number 8:16.

- Run dd to read a file and see if rate is throttled to 1MB/s or not::

        # dd iflag=direct if=/mnt/common/zerofile of=/dev/null bs=4K count=1024
        1024+0 records in
        1024+0 records out
        4194304 bytes (4.2 MB) copied, 4.0001 s, 1.0 MB/s

 Limits for writes can be put using blkio.throttle.write_bps_device file.

Hierarchical Cgroups
====================

Throttling implements hierarchy support; however,
throttling's hierarchy support is enabled iff "sane_behavior" is
enabled from cgroup side, which currently is a development option and
not publicly available.

If somebody created a hierarchy like as follows::

			root
			/  \
		     test1 test2
			|
		     test3

Throttling with "sane_behavior" will handle the
hierarchy correctly. For throttling, all limits apply
to the whole subtree while all statistics are local to the IOs
directly generated by tasks in that cgroup.

Throttling without "sane_behavior" enabled from cgroup side will
practically treat all groups at same level as if it looks like the
following::

				pivot
			     /  /   \  \
			root  test1 test2  test3

Various user visible config options
===================================
CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP
	- Block IO controller.

CONFIG_BFQ_CGROUP_DEBUG
	- Debug help. Right now some additional stats file show up in cgroup
	  if this option is enabled.

CONFIG_BLK_DEV_THROTTLING
	- Enable block device throttling support in block layer.

Details of cgroup files
=======================
Proportional weight policy files
--------------------------------
- blkio.weight
	- Specifies per cgroup weight. This is default weight of the group
	  on all the devices until and unless overridden by per device rule.
	  (See blkio.weight_device).
	  Currently allowed range of weights is from 10 to 1000.

- blkio.weight_device
	- One can specify per cgroup per device rules using this interface.
	  These rules override the default value of group weight as specified
	  by blkio.weight.

	  Following is the format::

	    # echo dev_maj:dev_minor weight > blkio.weight_device

	  Configure weight=300 on /dev/sdb (8:16) in this cgroup::

	    # echo 8:16 300 > blkio.weight_device
	    # cat blkio.weight_device
	    dev     weight
	    8:16    300

	  Configure weight=500 on /dev/sda (8:0) in this cgroup::

	    # echo 8:0 500 > blkio.weight_device
	    # cat blkio.weight_device
	    dev     weight
	    8:0     500
	    8:16    300

	  Remove specific weight for /dev/sda in this cgroup::

	    # echo 8:0 0 > blkio.weight_device
	    # cat blkio.weight_device
	    dev     weight
	    8:16    300

- blkio.time
	- disk time allocated to cgroup per device in milliseconds. First
	  two fields specify the major and minor number of the device and
	  third field specifies the disk time allocated to group in
	  milliseconds.

- blkio.sectors
	- number of sectors transferred to/from disk by the group. First
	  two fields specify the major and minor number of the device and
	  third field specifies the number of sectors transferred by the
	  group to/from the device.

- blkio.io_service_bytes
	- Number of bytes transferred to/from the disk by the group. These
	  are further divided by the type of operation - read or write, sync
	  or async. First two fields specify the major and minor number of the
	  device, third field specifies the operation type and the fourth field
	  specifies the number of bytes.

- blkio.io_serviced
	- Number of IOs (bio) issued to the disk by the group. These
	  are further divided by the type of operation - read or write, sync
	  or async. First two fields specify the major and minor number of the
	  device, third field specifies the operation type and the fourth field
	  specifies the number of IOs.

- blkio.io_service_time
	- Total amount of time between request dispatch and request completion
	  for the IOs done by this cgroup. This is in nanoseconds to make it
	  meaningful for flash devices too. For devices with queue depth of 1,
	  this time represents the actual service time. When queue_depth > 1,
	  that is no longer true as requests may be served out of order. This
	  may cause the service time for a given IO to include the service time
	  of multiple IOs when served out of order which may result in total
	  io_service_time > actual time elapsed. This time is further divided by
	  the type of operation - read or write, sync or async. First two fields
	  specify the major and minor number of the device, third field
	  specifies the operation type and the fourth field specifies the
	  io_service_time in ns.

- blkio.io_wait_time
	- Total amount of time the IOs for this cgroup spent waiting in the
	  scheduler queues for service. This can be greater than the total time
	  elapsed since it is cumulative io_wait_time for all IOs. It is not a
	  measure of total time the cgroup spent waiting but rather a measure of
	  the wait_time for its individual IOs. For devices with queue_depth > 1
	  this metric does not include the time spent waiting for service once
	  the IO is dispatched to the device but till it actually gets serviced
	  (there might be a time lag here due to re-ordering of requests by the
	  device). This is in nanoseconds to make it meaningful for flash
	  devices too. This time is further divided by the type of operation -
	  read or write, sync or async. First two fields specify the major and
	  minor number of the device, third field specifies the operation type
	  and the fourth field specifies the io_wait_time in ns.

- blkio.io_merged
	- Total number of bios/requests merged into requests belonging to this
	  cgroup. This is further divided by the type of operation - read or
	  write, sync or async.

- blkio.io_queued
	- Total number of requests queued up at any given instant for this
	  cgroup. This is further divided by the type of operation - read or
	  write, sync or async.

- blkio.avg_queue_size
	- Debugging aid only enabled if CONFIG_BFQ_CGROUP_DEBUG=y.
	  The average queue size for this cgroup over the entire time of this
	  cgroup's existence. Queue size samples are taken each time one of the
	  queues of this cgroup gets a timeslice.

- blkio.group_wait_time
	- Debugging aid only enabled if CONFIG_BFQ_CGROUP_DEBUG=y.
	  This is the amount of time the cgroup had to wait since it became busy
	  (i.e., went from 0 to 1 request queued) to get a timeslice for one of
	  its queues. This is different from the io_wait_time which is the
	  cumulative total of the amount of time spent by each IO in that cgroup
	  waiting in the scheduler queue. This is in nanoseconds. If this is
	  read when the cgroup is in a waiting (for timeslice) state, the stat
	  will only report the group_wait_time accumulated till the last time it
	  got a timeslice and will not include the current delta.

- blkio.empty_time
	- Debugging aid only enabled if CONFIG_BFQ_CGROUP_DEBUG=y.
	  This is the amount of time a cgroup spends without any pending
	  requests when not being served, i.e., it does not include any time
	  spent idling for one of the queues of the cgroup. This is in
	  nanoseconds. If this is read when the cgroup is in an empty state,
	  the stat will only report the empty_time accumulated till the last
	  time it had a pending request and will not include the current delta.

- blkio.idle_time
	- Debugging aid only enabled if CONFIG_BFQ_CGROUP_DEBUG=y.
	  This is the amount of time spent by the IO scheduler idling for a
	  given cgroup in anticipation of a better request than the existing ones
	  from other queues/cgroups. This is in nanoseconds. If this is read
	  when the cgroup is in an idling state, the stat will only report the
	  idle_time accumulated till the last idle period and will not include
	  the current delta.

- blkio.dequeue
	- Debugging aid only enabled if CONFIG_BFQ_CGROUP_DEBUG=y. This
	  gives the statistics about how many a times a group was dequeued
	  from service tree of the device. First two fields specify the major
	  and minor number of the device and third field specifies the number
	  of times a group was dequeued from a particular device.

- blkio.*_recursive
	- Recursive version of various stats. These files show the
          same information as their non-recursive counterparts but
          include stats from all the descendant cgroups.

Throttling/Upper limit policy files
-----------------------------------
- blkio.throttle.read_bps_device
	- Specifies upper limit on READ rate from the device. IO rate is
	  specified in bytes per second. Rules are per device. Following is
	  the format::

	    echo "<major>:<minor>  <rate_bytes_per_second>" > /cgrp/blkio.throttle.read_bps_device

- blkio.throttle.write_bps_device
	- Specifies upper limit on WRITE rate to the device. IO rate is
	  specified in bytes per second. Rules are per device. Following is
	  the format::

	    echo "<major>:<minor>  <rate_bytes_per_second>" > /cgrp/blkio.throttle.write_bps_device

- blkio.throttle.read_iops_device
	- Specifies upper limit on READ rate from the device. IO rate is
	  specified in IO per second. Rules are per device. Following is
	  the format::

	   echo "<major>:<minor>  <rate_io_per_second>" > /cgrp/blkio.throttle.read_iops_device

- blkio.throttle.write_iops_device
	- Specifies upper limit on WRITE rate to the device. IO rate is
	  specified in io per second. Rules are per device. Following is
	  the format::

	    echo "<major>:<minor>  <rate_io_per_second>" > /cgrp/blkio.throttle.write_iops_device

Note: If both BW and IOPS rules are specified for a device, then IO is
      subjected to both the constraints.

- blkio.throttle.io_serviced
	- Number of IOs (bio) issued to the disk by the group. These
	  are further divided by the type of operation - read or write, sync
	  or async. First two fields specify the major and minor number of the
	  device, third field specifies the operation type and the fourth field
	  specifies the number of IOs.

- blkio.throttle.io_service_bytes
	- Number of bytes transferred to/from the disk by the group. These
	  are further divided by the type of operation - read or write, sync
	  or async. First two fields specify the major and minor number of the
	  device, third field specifies the operation type and the fourth field
	  specifies the number of bytes.

Common files among various policies
-----------------------------------
- blkio.reset_stats
	- Writing an int to this file will result in resetting all the stats
	  for that cgroup.