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Documentation / device-mapper / dm-raid.txt




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Based on kernel version 4.13.3. Page generated on 2017-09-23 13:54 EST.

1	dm-raid
2	=======
3	
4	The device-mapper RAID (dm-raid) target provides a bridge from DM to MD.
5	It allows the MD RAID drivers to be accessed using a device-mapper
6	interface.
7	
8	
9	Mapping Table Interface
10	-----------------------
11	The target is named "raid" and it accepts the following parameters:
12	
13	  <raid_type> <#raid_params> <raid_params> \
14	    <#raid_devs> <metadata_dev0> <dev0> [.. <metadata_devN> <devN>]
15	
16	<raid_type>:
17	  raid0		RAID0 striping (no resilience)
18	  raid1		RAID1 mirroring
19	  raid4		RAID4 with dedicated last parity disk
20	  raid5_n 	RAID5 with dedicated last parity disk supporting takeover
21			Same as raid4
22			-Transitory layout
23	  raid5_la	RAID5 left asymmetric
24			- rotating parity 0 with data continuation
25	  raid5_ra	RAID5 right asymmetric
26			- rotating parity N with data continuation
27	  raid5_ls	RAID5 left symmetric
28			- rotating parity 0 with data restart
29	  raid5_rs 	RAID5 right symmetric
30			- rotating parity N with data restart
31	  raid6_zr	RAID6 zero restart
32			- rotating parity zero (left-to-right) with data restart
33	  raid6_nr	RAID6 N restart
34			- rotating parity N (right-to-left) with data restart
35	  raid6_nc	RAID6 N continue
36			- rotating parity N (right-to-left) with data continuation
37	  raid6_n_6	RAID6 with dedicate parity disks
38			- parity and Q-syndrome on the last 2 disks;
39			  layout for takeover from/to raid4/raid5_n
40	  raid6_la_6	Same as "raid_la" plus dedicated last Q-syndrome disk
41			- layout for takeover from raid5_la from/to raid6
42	  raid6_ra_6	Same as "raid5_ra" dedicated last Q-syndrome disk
43			- layout for takeover from raid5_ra from/to raid6
44	  raid6_ls_6	Same as "raid5_ls" dedicated last Q-syndrome disk
45			- layout for takeover from raid5_ls from/to raid6
46	  raid6_rs_6	Same as "raid5_rs" dedicated last Q-syndrome disk
47			- layout for takeover from raid5_rs from/to raid6
48	  raid10        Various RAID10 inspired algorithms chosen by additional params
49			(see raid10_format and raid10_copies below)
50			- RAID10: Striped Mirrors (aka 'Striping on top of mirrors')
51			- RAID1E: Integrated Adjacent Stripe Mirroring
52			- RAID1E: Integrated Offset Stripe Mirroring
53			-  and other similar RAID10 variants
54	
55	  Reference: Chapter 4 of
56	  http://www.snia.org/sites/default/files/SNIA_DDF_Technical_Position_v2.0.pdf
57	
58	<#raid_params>: The number of parameters that follow.
59	
60	<raid_params> consists of
61	    Mandatory parameters:
62	        <chunk_size>: Chunk size in sectors.  This parameter is often known as
63			      "stripe size".  It is the only mandatory parameter and
64			      is placed first.
65	
66	    followed by optional parameters (in any order):
67		[sync|nosync]   Force or prevent RAID initialization.
68	
69		[rebuild <idx>]	Rebuild drive number 'idx' (first drive is 0).
70	
71		[daemon_sleep <ms>]
72			Interval between runs of the bitmap daemon that
73			clear bits.  A longer interval means less bitmap I/O but
74			resyncing after a failure is likely to take longer.
75	
76		[min_recovery_rate <kB/sec/disk>]  Throttle RAID initialization
77		[max_recovery_rate <kB/sec/disk>]  Throttle RAID initialization
78		[write_mostly <idx>]		   Mark drive index 'idx' write-mostly.
79		[max_write_behind <sectors>]       See '--write-behind=' (man mdadm)
80		[stripe_cache <sectors>]           Stripe cache size (RAID 4/5/6 only)
81		[region_size <sectors>]
82			The region_size multiplied by the number of regions is the
83			logical size of the array.  The bitmap records the device
84			synchronisation state for each region.
85	
86	        [raid10_copies   <# copies>]
87	        [raid10_format   <near|far|offset>]
88			These two options are used to alter the default layout of
89			a RAID10 configuration.  The number of copies is can be
90			specified, but the default is 2.  There are also three
91			variations to how the copies are laid down - the default
92			is "near".  Near copies are what most people think of with
93			respect to mirroring.  If these options are left unspecified,
94			or 'raid10_copies 2' and/or 'raid10_format near' are given,
95			then the layouts for 2, 3 and 4 devices	are:
96			2 drives         3 drives          4 drives
97			--------         ----------        --------------
98			A1  A1           A1  A1  A2        A1  A1  A2  A2
99			A2  A2           A2  A3  A3        A3  A3  A4  A4
100			A3  A3           A4  A4  A5        A5  A5  A6  A6
101			A4  A4           A5  A6  A6        A7  A7  A8  A8
102			..  ..           ..  ..  ..        ..  ..  ..  ..
103			The 2-device layout is equivalent 2-way RAID1.  The 4-device
104			layout is what a traditional RAID10 would look like.  The
105			3-device layout is what might be called a 'RAID1E - Integrated
106			Adjacent Stripe Mirroring'.
107	
108			If 'raid10_copies 2' and 'raid10_format far', then the layouts
109			for 2, 3 and 4 devices are:
110			2 drives             3 drives             4 drives
111			--------             --------------       --------------------
112			A1  A2               A1   A2   A3         A1   A2   A3   A4
113			A3  A4               A4   A5   A6         A5   A6   A7   A8
114			A5  A6               A7   A8   A9         A9   A10  A11  A12
115			..  ..               ..   ..   ..         ..   ..   ..   ..
116			A2  A1               A3   A1   A2         A2   A1   A4   A3
117			A4  A3               A6   A4   A5         A6   A5   A8   A7
118			A6  A5               A9   A7   A8         A10  A9   A12  A11
119			..  ..               ..   ..   ..         ..   ..   ..   ..
120	
121			If 'raid10_copies 2' and 'raid10_format offset', then the
122			layouts for 2, 3 and 4 devices are:
123			2 drives       3 drives           4 drives
124			--------       ------------       -----------------
125			A1  A2         A1  A2  A3         A1  A2  A3  A4
126			A2  A1         A3  A1  A2         A2  A1  A4  A3
127			A3  A4         A4  A5  A6         A5  A6  A7  A8
128			A4  A3         A6  A4  A5         A6  A5  A8  A7
129			A5  A6         A7  A8  A9         A9  A10 A11 A12
130			A6  A5         A9  A7  A8         A10 A9  A12 A11
131			..  ..         ..  ..  ..         ..  ..  ..  ..
132			Here we see layouts closely akin to 'RAID1E - Integrated
133			Offset Stripe Mirroring'.
134	
135	        [delta_disks <N>]
136			The delta_disks option value (-251 < N < +251) triggers
137			device removal (negative value) or device addition (positive
138			value) to any reshape supporting raid levels 4/5/6 and 10.
139			RAID levels 4/5/6 allow for addition of devices (metadata
140			and data device tuple), raid10_near and raid10_offset only
141			allow for device addition. raid10_far does not support any
142			reshaping at all.
143			A minimum of devices have to be kept to enforce resilience,
144			which is 3 devices for raid4/5 and 4 devices for raid6.
145	
146	        [data_offset <sectors>]
147			This option value defines the offset into each data device
148			where the data starts. This is used to provide out-of-place
149			reshaping space to avoid writing over data whilst
150			changing the layout of stripes, hence an interruption/crash
151			may happen at any time without the risk of losing data.
152			E.g. when adding devices to an existing raid set during
153			forward reshaping, the out-of-place space will be allocated
154			at the beginning of each raid device. The kernel raid4/5/6/10
155			MD personalities supporting such device addition will read the data from
156			the existing first stripes (those with smaller number of stripes)
157			starting at data_offset to fill up a new stripe with the larger
158			number of stripes, calculate the redundancy blocks (CRC/Q-syndrome)
159			and write that new stripe to offset 0. Same will be applied to all
160			N-1 other new stripes. This out-of-place scheme is used to change
161			the RAID type (i.e. the allocation algorithm) as well, e.g.
162			changing from raid5_ls to raid5_n.
163	
164		[journal_dev <dev>]
165			This option adds a journal device to raid4/5/6 raid sets and
166			uses it to close the 'write hole' caused by the non-atomic updates
167			to the component devices which can cause data loss during recovery.
168			The journal device is used as writethrough thus causing writes to
169			be throttled versus non-journaled raid4/5/6 sets.
170			Takeover/reshape is not possible with a raid4/5/6 journal device;
171			it has to be deconfigured before requesting these.
172	
173		[journal_mode <mode>]
174			This option sets the caching mode on journaled raid4/5/6 raid sets
175			(see 'journal_dev <dev>' above) to 'writethrough' or 'writeback'.
176			If 'writeback' is selected the journal device has to be resilient
177			and must not suffer from the 'write hole' problem itself (e.g. use
178			raid1 or raid10) to avoid a single point of failure.
179	
180	<#raid_devs>: The number of devices composing the array.
181		Each device consists of two entries.  The first is the device
182		containing the metadata (if any); the second is the one containing the
183		data. A Maximum of 64 metadata/data device entries are supported
184		up to target version 1.8.0.
185		1.9.0 supports up to 253 which is enforced by the used MD kernel runtime.
186	
187		If a drive has failed or is missing at creation time, a '-' can be
188		given for both the metadata and data drives for a given position.
189	
190	
191	Example Tables
192	--------------
193	# RAID4 - 4 data drives, 1 parity (no metadata devices)
194	# No metadata devices specified to hold superblock/bitmap info
195	# Chunk size of 1MiB
196	# (Lines separated for easy reading)
197	
198	0 1960893648 raid \
199	        raid4 1 2048 \
200	        5 - 8:17 - 8:33 - 8:49 - 8:65 - 8:81
201	
202	# RAID4 - 4 data drives, 1 parity (with metadata devices)
203	# Chunk size of 1MiB, force RAID initialization,
204	#       min recovery rate at 20 kiB/sec/disk
205	
206	0 1960893648 raid \
207	        raid4 4 2048 sync min_recovery_rate 20 \
208	        5 8:17 8:18 8:33 8:34 8:49 8:50 8:65 8:66 8:81 8:82
209	
210	
211	Status Output
212	-------------
213	'dmsetup table' displays the table used to construct the mapping.
214	The optional parameters are always printed in the order listed
215	above with "sync" or "nosync" always output ahead of the other
216	arguments, regardless of the order used when originally loading the table.
217	Arguments that can be repeated are ordered by value.
218	
219	
220	'dmsetup status' yields information on the state and health of the array.
221	The output is as follows (normally a single line, but expanded here for
222	clarity):
223	1: <s> <l> raid \
224	2:      <raid_type> <#devices> <health_chars> \
225	3:      <sync_ratio> <sync_action> <mismatch_cnt>
226	
227	Line 1 is the standard output produced by device-mapper.
228	Line 2 & 3 are produced by the raid target and are best explained by example:
229	        0 1960893648 raid raid4 5 AAAAA 2/490221568 init 0
230	Here we can see the RAID type is raid4, there are 5 devices - all of
231	which are 'A'live, and the array is 2/490221568 complete with its initial
232	recovery.  Here is a fuller description of the individual fields:
233		<raid_type>     Same as the <raid_type> used to create the array.
234		<health_chars>  One char for each device, indicating: 'A' = alive and
235				in-sync, 'a' = alive but not in-sync, 'D' = dead/failed.
236		<sync_ratio>    The ratio indicating how much of the array has undergone
237				the process described by 'sync_action'.  If the
238				'sync_action' is "check" or "repair", then the process
239				of "resync" or "recover" can be considered complete.
240		<sync_action>   One of the following possible states:
241				idle    - No synchronization action is being performed.
242				frozen  - The current action has been halted.
243				resync  - Array is undergoing its initial synchronization
244					  or is resynchronizing after an unclean shutdown
245					  (possibly aided by a bitmap).
246				recover - A device in the array is being rebuilt or
247					  replaced.
248				check   - A user-initiated full check of the array is
249					  being performed.  All blocks are read and
250					  checked for consistency.  The number of
251					  discrepancies found are recorded in
252					  <mismatch_cnt>.  No changes are made to the
253					  array by this action.
254				repair  - The same as "check", but discrepancies are
255					  corrected.
256				reshape - The array is undergoing a reshape.
257		<mismatch_cnt>  The number of discrepancies found between mirror copies
258				in RAID1/10 or wrong parity values found in RAID4/5/6.
259				This value is valid only after a "check" of the array
260				is performed.  A healthy array has a 'mismatch_cnt' of 0.
261		<data_offset>   The current data offset to the start of the user data on
262				each component device of a raid set (see the respective
263				raid parameter to support out-of-place reshaping).
264		<journal_char>	'A' - active write-through journal device.
265				'a' - active write-back journal device.
266				'D' - dead journal device.
267				'-' - no journal device.
268	
269	
270	Message Interface
271	-----------------
272	The dm-raid target will accept certain actions through the 'message' interface.
273	('man dmsetup' for more information on the message interface.)  These actions
274	include:
275		"idle"   - Halt the current sync action.
276		"frozen" - Freeze the current sync action.
277		"resync" - Initiate/continue a resync.
278		"recover"- Initiate/continue a recover process.
279		"check"  - Initiate a check (i.e. a "scrub") of the array.
280		"repair" - Initiate a repair of the array.
281	
282	
283	Discard Support
284	---------------
285	The implementation of discard support among hardware vendors varies.
286	When a block is discarded, some storage devices will return zeroes when
287	the block is read.  These devices set the 'discard_zeroes_data'
288	attribute.  Other devices will return random data.  Confusingly, some
289	devices that advertise 'discard_zeroes_data' will not reliably return
290	zeroes when discarded blocks are read!  Since RAID 4/5/6 uses blocks
291	from a number of devices to calculate parity blocks and (for performance
292	reasons) relies on 'discard_zeroes_data' being reliable, it is important
293	that the devices be consistent.  Blocks may be discarded in the middle
294	of a RAID 4/5/6 stripe and if subsequent read results are not
295	consistent, the parity blocks may be calculated differently at any time;
296	making the parity blocks useless for redundancy.  It is important to
297	understand how your hardware behaves with discards if you are going to
298	enable discards with RAID 4/5/6.
299	
300	Since the behavior of storage devices is unreliable in this respect,
301	even when reporting 'discard_zeroes_data', by default RAID 4/5/6
302	discard support is disabled -- this ensures data integrity at the
303	expense of losing some performance.
304	
305	Storage devices that properly support 'discard_zeroes_data' are
306	increasingly whitelisted in the kernel and can thus be trusted.
307	
308	For trusted devices, the following dm-raid module parameter can be set
309	to safely enable discard support for RAID 4/5/6:
310	    'devices_handle_discards_safely'
311	
312	
313	Version History
314	---------------
315	1.0.0	Initial version.  Support for RAID 4/5/6
316	1.1.0	Added support for RAID 1
317	1.2.0	Handle creation of arrays that contain failed devices.
318	1.3.0	Added support for RAID 10
319	1.3.1	Allow device replacement/rebuild for RAID 10
320	1.3.2   Fix/improve redundancy checking for RAID10
321	1.4.0	Non-functional change.  Removes arg from mapping function.
322	1.4.1   RAID10 fix redundancy validation checks (commit 55ebbb5).
323	1.4.2   Add RAID10 "far" and "offset" algorithm support.
324	1.5.0   Add message interface to allow manipulation of the sync_action.
325		New status (STATUSTYPE_INFO) fields: sync_action and mismatch_cnt.
326	1.5.1   Add ability to restore transiently failed devices on resume.
327	1.5.2   'mismatch_cnt' is zero unless [last_]sync_action is "check".
328	1.6.0   Add discard support (and devices_handle_discard_safely module param).
329	1.7.0   Add support for MD RAID0 mappings.
330	1.8.0   Explicitly check for compatible flags in the superblock metadata
331		and reject to start the raid set if any are set by a newer
332		target version, thus avoiding data corruption on a raid set
333		with a reshape in progress.
334	1.9.0   Add support for RAID level takeover/reshape/region size
335		and set size reduction.
336	1.9.1   Fix activation of existing RAID 4/10 mapped devices
337	1.9.2   Don't emit '- -' on the status table line in case the constructor
338		fails reading a superblock. Correctly emit 'maj:min1 maj:min2' and
339		'D' on the status line.  If '- -' is passed into the constructor, emit
340		'- -' on the table line and '-' as the status line health character.
341	1.10.0  Add support for raid4/5/6 journal device
342	1.10.1  Fix data corruption on reshape request
343	1.11.0  Fix table line argument order
344		(wrong raid10_copies/raid10_format sequence)
345	1.11.1  Add raid4/5/6 journal write-back support via journal_mode option
346	1.12.1  fix for MD deadlock between mddev_suspend() and md_write_start() available
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