Documentation / driver-api / iio / buffers.rst


Based on kernel version 5.9. Page generated on 2020-10-14 09:35 EST.

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=======
Buffers
=======

* struct :c:type:`iio_buffer` — general buffer structure
* :c:func:`iio_validate_scan_mask_onehot` — Validates that exactly one channel
  is selected
* :c:func:`iio_buffer_get` — Grab a reference to the buffer
* :c:func:`iio_buffer_put` — Release the reference to the buffer

The Industrial I/O core offers a way for continuous data capture based on a
trigger source. Multiple data channels can be read at once from
:file:`/dev/iio:device{X}` character device node, thus reducing the CPU load.

IIO buffer sysfs interface
==========================
An IIO buffer has an associated attributes directory under
:file:`/sys/bus/iio/iio:device{X}/buffer/*`. Here are some of the existing
attributes:

* :file:`length`, the total number of data samples (capacity) that can be
  stored by the buffer.
* :file:`enable`, activate buffer capture.

IIO buffer setup
================

The meta information associated with a channel reading placed in a buffer is
called a scan element. The important bits configuring scan elements are
exposed to userspace applications via the
:file:`/sys/bus/iio/iio:device{X}/scan_elements/*` directory. This file contains
attributes of the following form:

* :file:`enable`, used for enabling a channel. If and only if its attribute
  is non *zero*, then a triggered capture will contain data samples for this
  channel.
* :file:`type`, description of the scan element data storage within the buffer
  and hence the form in which it is read from user space.
  Format is [be|le]:[s|u]bits/storagebitsXrepeat[>>shift] .
  * *be* or *le*, specifies big or little endian.
  * *s* or *u*, specifies if signed (2's complement) or unsigned.
  * *bits*, is the number of valid data bits.
  * *storagebits*, is the number of bits (after padding) that it occupies in the
  buffer.
  * *shift*, if specified, is the shift that needs to be applied prior to
  masking out unused bits.
  * *repeat*, specifies the number of bits/storagebits repetitions. When the
  repeat element is 0 or 1, then the repeat value is omitted.

For example, a driver for a 3-axis accelerometer with 12 bit resolution where
data is stored in two 8-bits registers as follows::

        7   6   5   4   3   2   1   0
      +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      |D3 |D2 |D1 |D0 | X | X | X | X | (LOW byte, address 0x06)
      +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

        7   6   5   4   3   2   1   0
      +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
      |D11|D10|D9 |D8 |D7 |D6 |D5 |D4 | (HIGH byte, address 0x07)
      +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

will have the following scan element type for each axis::

      $ cat /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device0/scan_elements/in_accel_y_type
      le:s12/16>>4

A user space application will interpret data samples read from the buffer as
two byte little endian signed data, that needs a 4 bits right shift before
masking out the 12 valid bits of data.

For implementing buffer support a driver should initialize the following
fields in iio_chan_spec definition::

   struct iio_chan_spec {
   /* other members */
           int scan_index
           struct {
                   char sign;
                   u8 realbits;
                   u8 storagebits;
                   u8 shift;
                   u8 repeat;
                   enum iio_endian endianness;
                  } scan_type;
          };

The driver implementing the accelerometer described above will have the
following channel definition::

   struct iio_chan_spec accel_channels[] = {
           {
                   .type = IIO_ACCEL,
		   .modified = 1,
		   .channel2 = IIO_MOD_X,
		   /* other stuff here */
		   .scan_index = 0,
		   .scan_type = {
		           .sign = 's',
			   .realbits = 12,
			   .storagebits = 16,
			   .shift = 4,
			   .endianness = IIO_LE,
		   },
           }
           /* similar for Y (with channel2 = IIO_MOD_Y, scan_index = 1)
            * and Z (with channel2 = IIO_MOD_Z, scan_index = 2) axis
            */
    }

Here **scan_index** defines the order in which the enabled channels are placed
inside the buffer. Channels with a lower **scan_index** will be placed before
channels with a higher index. Each channel needs to have a unique
**scan_index**.

Setting **scan_index** to -1 can be used to indicate that the specific channel
does not support buffered capture. In this case no entries will be created for
the channel in the scan_elements directory.

More details
============
.. kernel-doc:: include/linux/iio/buffer.h
.. kernel-doc:: drivers/iio/industrialio-buffer.c
   :export: