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Based on kernel version 4.7.2. Page generated on 2016-08-22 22:45 EST.

2		      Overview of the Linux Virtual File System
4		Original author: Richard Gooch <rgooch@atnf.csiro.au>
6			  Last updated on June 24, 2007.
8	  Copyright (C) 1999 Richard Gooch
9	  Copyright (C) 2005 Pekka Enberg
11	  This file is released under the GPLv2.
14	Introduction
15	============
17	The Virtual File System (also known as the Virtual Filesystem Switch)
18	is the software layer in the kernel that provides the filesystem
19	interface to userspace programs. It also provides an abstraction
20	within the kernel which allows different filesystem implementations to
21	coexist.
23	VFS system calls open(2), stat(2), read(2), write(2), chmod(2) and so
24	on are called from a process context. Filesystem locking is described
25	in the document Documentation/filesystems/Locking.
28	Directory Entry Cache (dcache)
29	------------------------------
31	The VFS implements the open(2), stat(2), chmod(2), and similar system
32	calls. The pathname argument that is passed to them is used by the VFS
33	to search through the directory entry cache (also known as the dentry
34	cache or dcache). This provides a very fast look-up mechanism to
35	translate a pathname (filename) into a specific dentry. Dentries live
36	in RAM and are never saved to disc: they exist only for performance.
38	The dentry cache is meant to be a view into your entire filespace. As
39	most computers cannot fit all dentries in the RAM at the same time,
40	some bits of the cache are missing. In order to resolve your pathname
41	into a dentry, the VFS may have to resort to creating dentries along
42	the way, and then loading the inode. This is done by looking up the
43	inode.
46	The Inode Object
47	----------------
49	An individual dentry usually has a pointer to an inode. Inodes are
50	filesystem objects such as regular files, directories, FIFOs and other
51	beasts.  They live either on the disc (for block device filesystems)
52	or in the memory (for pseudo filesystems). Inodes that live on the
53	disc are copied into the memory when required and changes to the inode
54	are written back to disc. A single inode can be pointed to by multiple
55	dentries (hard links, for example, do this).
57	To look up an inode requires that the VFS calls the lookup() method of
58	the parent directory inode. This method is installed by the specific
59	filesystem implementation that the inode lives in. Once the VFS has
60	the required dentry (and hence the inode), we can do all those boring
61	things like open(2) the file, or stat(2) it to peek at the inode
62	data. The stat(2) operation is fairly simple: once the VFS has the
63	dentry, it peeks at the inode data and passes some of it back to
64	userspace.
67	The File Object
68	---------------
70	Opening a file requires another operation: allocation of a file
71	structure (this is the kernel-side implementation of file
72	descriptors). The freshly allocated file structure is initialized with
73	a pointer to the dentry and a set of file operation member functions.
74	These are taken from the inode data. The open() file method is then
75	called so the specific filesystem implementation can do its work. You
76	can see that this is another switch performed by the VFS. The file
77	structure is placed into the file descriptor table for the process.
79	Reading, writing and closing files (and other assorted VFS operations)
80	is done by using the userspace file descriptor to grab the appropriate
81	file structure, and then calling the required file structure method to
82	do whatever is required. For as long as the file is open, it keeps the
83	dentry in use, which in turn means that the VFS inode is still in use.
86	Registering and Mounting a Filesystem
87	=====================================
89	To register and unregister a filesystem, use the following API
90	functions:
92	   #include <linux/fs.h>
94	   extern int register_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
95	   extern int unregister_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
97	The passed struct file_system_type describes your filesystem. When a
98	request is made to mount a filesystem onto a directory in your namespace,
99	the VFS will call the appropriate mount() method for the specific
100	filesystem.  New vfsmount referring to the tree returned by ->mount()
101	will be attached to the mountpoint, so that when pathname resolution
102	reaches the mountpoint it will jump into the root of that vfsmount.
104	You can see all filesystems that are registered to the kernel in the
105	file /proc/filesystems.
108	struct file_system_type
109	-----------------------
111	This describes the filesystem. As of kernel 2.6.39, the following
112	members are defined:
114	struct file_system_type {
115		const char *name;
116		int fs_flags;
117	        struct dentry *(*mount) (struct file_system_type *, int,
118	                       const char *, void *);
119	        void (*kill_sb) (struct super_block *);
120	        struct module *owner;
121	        struct file_system_type * next;
122	        struct list_head fs_supers;
123		struct lock_class_key s_lock_key;
124		struct lock_class_key s_umount_key;
125	};
127	  name: the name of the filesystem type, such as "ext2", "iso9660",
128		"msdos" and so on
130	  fs_flags: various flags (i.e. FS_REQUIRES_DEV, FS_NO_DCACHE, etc.)
132	  mount: the method to call when a new instance of this
133		filesystem should be mounted
135	  kill_sb: the method to call when an instance of this filesystem
136		should be shut down
138	  owner: for internal VFS use: you should initialize this to THIS_MODULE in
139	  	most cases.
141	  next: for internal VFS use: you should initialize this to NULL
143	  s_lock_key, s_umount_key: lockdep-specific
145	The mount() method has the following arguments:
147	  struct file_system_type *fs_type: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
148	  	by the specific filesystem code
150	  int flags: mount flags
152	  const char *dev_name: the device name we are mounting.
154	  void *data: arbitrary mount options, usually comes as an ASCII
155		string (see "Mount Options" section)
157	The mount() method must return the root dentry of the tree requested by
158	caller.  An active reference to its superblock must be grabbed and the
159	superblock must be locked.  On failure it should return ERR_PTR(error).
161	The arguments match those of mount(2) and their interpretation
162	depends on filesystem type.  E.g. for block filesystems, dev_name is
163	interpreted as block device name, that device is opened and if it
164	contains a suitable filesystem image the method creates and initializes
165	struct super_block accordingly, returning its root dentry to caller.
167	->mount() may choose to return a subtree of existing filesystem - it
168	doesn't have to create a new one.  The main result from the caller's
169	point of view is a reference to dentry at the root of (sub)tree to
170	be attached; creation of new superblock is a common side effect.
172	The most interesting member of the superblock structure that the
173	mount() method fills in is the "s_op" field. This is a pointer to
174	a "struct super_operations" which describes the next level of the
175	filesystem implementation.
177	Usually, a filesystem uses one of the generic mount() implementations
178	and provides a fill_super() callback instead. The generic variants are:
180	  mount_bdev: mount a filesystem residing on a block device
182	  mount_nodev: mount a filesystem that is not backed by a device
184	  mount_single: mount a filesystem which shares the instance between
185	  	all mounts
187	A fill_super() callback implementation has the following arguments:
189	  struct super_block *sb: the superblock structure. The callback
190	  	must initialize this properly.
192	  void *data: arbitrary mount options, usually comes as an ASCII
193		string (see "Mount Options" section)
195	  int silent: whether or not to be silent on error
198	The Superblock Object
199	=====================
201	A superblock object represents a mounted filesystem.
204	struct super_operations
205	-----------------------
207	This describes how the VFS can manipulate the superblock of your
208	filesystem. As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
210	struct super_operations {
211	        struct inode *(*alloc_inode)(struct super_block *sb);
212	        void (*destroy_inode)(struct inode *);
214	        void (*dirty_inode) (struct inode *, int flags);
215	        int (*write_inode) (struct inode *, int);
216	        void (*drop_inode) (struct inode *);
217	        void (*delete_inode) (struct inode *);
218	        void (*put_super) (struct super_block *);
219	        int (*sync_fs)(struct super_block *sb, int wait);
220	        int (*freeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
221	        int (*unfreeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
222	        int (*statfs) (struct dentry *, struct kstatfs *);
223	        int (*remount_fs) (struct super_block *, int *, char *);
224	        void (*clear_inode) (struct inode *);
225	        void (*umount_begin) (struct super_block *);
227	        int (*show_options)(struct seq_file *, struct dentry *);
229	        ssize_t (*quota_read)(struct super_block *, int, char *, size_t, loff_t);
230	        ssize_t (*quota_write)(struct super_block *, int, const char *, size_t, loff_t);
231		int (*nr_cached_objects)(struct super_block *);
232		void (*free_cached_objects)(struct super_block *, int);
233	};
235	All methods are called without any locks being held, unless otherwise
236	noted. This means that most methods can block safely. All methods are
237	only called from a process context (i.e. not from an interrupt handler
238	or bottom half).
240	  alloc_inode: this method is called by alloc_inode() to allocate memory
241	 	for struct inode and initialize it.  If this function is not
242	 	defined, a simple 'struct inode' is allocated.  Normally
243	 	alloc_inode will be used to allocate a larger structure which
244	 	contains a 'struct inode' embedded within it.
246	  destroy_inode: this method is called by destroy_inode() to release
247	  	resources allocated for struct inode.  It is only required if
248	  	->alloc_inode was defined and simply undoes anything done by
249		->alloc_inode.
251	  dirty_inode: this method is called by the VFS to mark an inode dirty.
253	  write_inode: this method is called when the VFS needs to write an
254		inode to disc.  The second parameter indicates whether the write
255		should be synchronous or not, not all filesystems check this flag.
257	  drop_inode: called when the last access to the inode is dropped,
258		with the inode->i_lock spinlock held.
260		This method should be either NULL (normal UNIX filesystem
261		semantics) or "generic_delete_inode" (for filesystems that do not
262		want to cache inodes - causing "delete_inode" to always be
263		called regardless of the value of i_nlink)
265		The "generic_delete_inode()" behavior is equivalent to the
266		old practice of using "force_delete" in the put_inode() case,
267		but does not have the races that the "force_delete()" approach
268		had. 
270	  delete_inode: called when the VFS wants to delete an inode
272	  put_super: called when the VFS wishes to free the superblock
273		(i.e. unmount). This is called with the superblock lock held
275	  sync_fs: called when VFS is writing out all dirty data associated with
276	  	a superblock. The second parameter indicates whether the method
277		should wait until the write out has been completed. Optional.
279	  freeze_fs: called when VFS is locking a filesystem and
280	  	forcing it into a consistent state.  This method is currently
281	  	used by the Logical Volume Manager (LVM).
283	  unfreeze_fs: called when VFS is unlocking a filesystem and making it writable
284	  	again.
286	  statfs: called when the VFS needs to get filesystem statistics.
288	  remount_fs: called when the filesystem is remounted. This is called
289		with the kernel lock held
291	  clear_inode: called then the VFS clears the inode. Optional
293	  umount_begin: called when the VFS is unmounting a filesystem.
295	  show_options: called by the VFS to show mount options for
296		/proc/<pid>/mounts.  (see "Mount Options" section)
298	  quota_read: called by the VFS to read from filesystem quota file.
300	  quota_write: called by the VFS to write to filesystem quota file.
302	  nr_cached_objects: called by the sb cache shrinking function for the
303		filesystem to return the number of freeable cached objects it contains.
304		Optional.
306	  free_cache_objects: called by the sb cache shrinking function for the
307		filesystem to scan the number of objects indicated to try to free them.
308		Optional, but any filesystem implementing this method needs to also
309		implement ->nr_cached_objects for it to be called correctly.
311		We can't do anything with any errors that the filesystem might
312		encountered, hence the void return type. This will never be called if
313		the VM is trying to reclaim under GFP_NOFS conditions, hence this
314		method does not need to handle that situation itself.
316		Implementations must include conditional reschedule calls inside any
317		scanning loop that is done. This allows the VFS to determine
318		appropriate scan batch sizes without having to worry about whether
319		implementations will cause holdoff problems due to large scan batch
320		sizes.
322	Whoever sets up the inode is responsible for filling in the "i_op" field. This
323	is a pointer to a "struct inode_operations" which describes the methods that
324	can be performed on individual inodes.
327	The Inode Object
328	================
330	An inode object represents an object within the filesystem.
333	struct inode_operations
334	-----------------------
336	This describes how the VFS can manipulate an inode in your
337	filesystem. As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
339	struct inode_operations {
340		int (*create) (struct inode *,struct dentry *, umode_t, bool);
341		struct dentry * (*lookup) (struct inode *,struct dentry *, unsigned int);
342		int (*link) (struct dentry *,struct inode *,struct dentry *);
343		int (*unlink) (struct inode *,struct dentry *);
344		int (*symlink) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,const char *);
345		int (*mkdir) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,umode_t);
346		int (*rmdir) (struct inode *,struct dentry *);
347		int (*mknod) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,umode_t,dev_t);
348		int (*rename) (struct inode *, struct dentry *,
349				struct inode *, struct dentry *);
350		int (*rename2) (struct inode *, struct dentry *,
351				struct inode *, struct dentry *, unsigned int);
352		int (*readlink) (struct dentry *, char __user *,int);
353		const char *(*get_link) (struct dentry *, struct inode *,
354					 struct delayed_call *);
355		int (*permission) (struct inode *, int);
356		int (*get_acl)(struct inode *, int);
357		int (*setattr) (struct dentry *, struct iattr *);
358		int (*getattr) (struct vfsmount *mnt, struct dentry *, struct kstat *);
359		int (*setxattr) (struct dentry *, const char *,const void *,size_t,int);
360		ssize_t (*getxattr) (struct dentry *, const char *, void *, size_t);
361		ssize_t (*listxattr) (struct dentry *, char *, size_t);
362		int (*removexattr) (struct dentry *, const char *);
363		void (*update_time)(struct inode *, struct timespec *, int);
364		int (*atomic_open)(struct inode *, struct dentry *, struct file *,
365				unsigned open_flag, umode_t create_mode, int *opened);
366		int (*tmpfile) (struct inode *, struct dentry *, umode_t);
367		int (*dentry_open)(struct dentry *, struct file *, const struct cred *);
368	};
370	Again, all methods are called without any locks being held, unless
371	otherwise noted.
373	  create: called by the open(2) and creat(2) system calls. Only
374		required if you want to support regular files. The dentry you
375		get should not have an inode (i.e. it should be a negative
376		dentry). Here you will probably call d_instantiate() with the
377		dentry and the newly created inode
379	  lookup: called when the VFS needs to look up an inode in a parent
380		directory. The name to look for is found in the dentry. This
381		method must call d_add() to insert the found inode into the
382		dentry. The "i_count" field in the inode structure should be
383		incremented. If the named inode does not exist a NULL inode
384		should be inserted into the dentry (this is called a negative
385		dentry). Returning an error code from this routine must only
386		be done on a real error, otherwise creating inodes with system
387		calls like create(2), mknod(2), mkdir(2) and so on will fail.
388		If you wish to overload the dentry methods then you should
389		initialise the "d_dop" field in the dentry; this is a pointer
390		to a struct "dentry_operations".
391		This method is called with the directory inode semaphore held
393	  link: called by the link(2) system call. Only required if you want
394		to support hard links. You will probably need to call
395		d_instantiate() just as you would in the create() method
397	  unlink: called by the unlink(2) system call. Only required if you
398		want to support deleting inodes
400	  symlink: called by the symlink(2) system call. Only required if you
401		want to support symlinks. You will probably need to call
402		d_instantiate() just as you would in the create() method
404	  mkdir: called by the mkdir(2) system call. Only required if you want
405		to support creating subdirectories. You will probably need to
406		call d_instantiate() just as you would in the create() method
408	  rmdir: called by the rmdir(2) system call. Only required if you want
409		to support deleting subdirectories
411	  mknod: called by the mknod(2) system call to create a device (char,
412		block) inode or a named pipe (FIFO) or socket. Only required
413		if you want to support creating these types of inodes. You
414		will probably need to call d_instantiate() just as you would
415		in the create() method
417	  rename: called by the rename(2) system call to rename the object to
418		have the parent and name given by the second inode and dentry.
420	  rename2: this has an additional flags argument compared to rename.
421		If no flags are supported by the filesystem then this method
422		need not be implemented.  If some flags are supported then the
423		filesystem must return -EINVAL for any unsupported or unknown
424		flags.  Currently the following flags are implemented:
425		(1) RENAME_NOREPLACE: this flag indicates that if the target
426		of the rename exists the rename should fail with -EEXIST
427		instead of replacing the target.  The VFS already checks for
428		existence, so for local filesystems the RENAME_NOREPLACE
429		implementation is equivalent to plain rename.
430		(2) RENAME_EXCHANGE: exchange source and target.  Both must
431		exist; this is checked by the VFS.  Unlike plain rename,
432		source and target may be of different type.
434	  readlink: called by the readlink(2) system call. Only required if
435		you want to support reading symbolic links
437	  get_link: called by the VFS to follow a symbolic link to the
438		inode it points to.  Only required if you want to support
439		symbolic links.  This method returns the symlink body
440		to traverse (and possibly resets the current position with
441		nd_jump_link()).  If the body won't go away until the inode
442		is gone, nothing else is needed; if it needs to be otherwise
443		pinned, arrange for its release by having get_link(..., ..., done)
444		do set_delayed_call(done, destructor, argument).
445		In that case destructor(argument) will be called once VFS is
446		done with the body you've returned.
447		May be called in RCU mode; that is indicated by NULL dentry
448		argument.  If request can't be handled without leaving RCU mode,
449		have it return ERR_PTR(-ECHILD).
451	  permission: called by the VFS to check for access rights on a POSIX-like
452	  	filesystem.
454		May be called in rcu-walk mode (mask & MAY_NOT_BLOCK). If in rcu-walk
455	        mode, the filesystem must check the permission without blocking or
456		storing to the inode.
458		If a situation is encountered that rcu-walk cannot handle, return
459		-ECHILD and it will be called again in ref-walk mode.
461	  setattr: called by the VFS to set attributes for a file. This method
462	  	is called by chmod(2) and related system calls.
464	  getattr: called by the VFS to get attributes of a file. This method
465	  	is called by stat(2) and related system calls.
467	  setxattr: called by the VFS to set an extended attribute for a file.
468	  	Extended attribute is a name:value pair associated with an
469	  	inode. This method is called by setxattr(2) system call.
471	  getxattr: called by the VFS to retrieve the value of an extended
472	  	attribute name. This method is called by getxattr(2) function
473	  	call.
475	  listxattr: called by the VFS to list all extended attributes for a
476	  	given file. This method is called by listxattr(2) system call.
478	  removexattr: called by the VFS to remove an extended attribute from
479	  	a file. This method is called by removexattr(2) system call.
481	  update_time: called by the VFS to update a specific time or the i_version of
482	  	an inode.  If this is not defined the VFS will update the inode itself
483	  	and call mark_inode_dirty_sync.
485	  atomic_open: called on the last component of an open.  Using this optional
486	  	method the filesystem can look up, possibly create and open the file in
487	  	one atomic operation.  If it cannot perform this (e.g. the file type
488	  	turned out to be wrong) it may signal this by returning 1 instead of
489		usual 0 or -ve .  This method is only called if the last component is
490		negative or needs lookup.  Cached positive dentries are still handled by
491		f_op->open().  If the file was created, the FILE_CREATED flag should be
492		set in "opened".  In case of O_EXCL the method must only succeed if the
493		file didn't exist and hence FILE_CREATED shall always be set on success.
495	  tmpfile: called in the end of O_TMPFILE open().  Optional, equivalent to
496		atomically creating, opening and unlinking a file in given directory.
498	The Address Space Object
499	========================
501	The address space object is used to group and manage pages in the page
502	cache.  It can be used to keep track of the pages in a file (or
503	anything else) and also track the mapping of sections of the file into
504	process address spaces.
506	There are a number of distinct yet related services that an
507	address-space can provide.  These include communicating memory
508	pressure, page lookup by address, and keeping track of pages tagged as
509	Dirty or Writeback.
511	The first can be used independently to the others.  The VM can try to
512	either write dirty pages in order to clean them, or release clean
513	pages in order to reuse them.  To do this it can call the ->writepage
514	method on dirty pages, and ->releasepage on clean pages with
515	PagePrivate set. Clean pages without PagePrivate and with no external
516	references will be released without notice being given to the
517	address_space.
519	To achieve this functionality, pages need to be placed on an LRU with
520	lru_cache_add and mark_page_active needs to be called whenever the
521	page is used.
523	Pages are normally kept in a radix tree index by ->index. This tree
524	maintains information about the PG_Dirty and PG_Writeback status of
525	each page, so that pages with either of these flags can be found
526	quickly.
528	The Dirty tag is primarily used by mpage_writepages - the default
529	->writepages method.  It uses the tag to find dirty pages to call
530	->writepage on.  If mpage_writepages is not used (i.e. the address
531	provides its own ->writepages) , the PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY tag is
532	almost unused.  write_inode_now and sync_inode do use it (through
533	__sync_single_inode) to check if ->writepages has been successful in
534	writing out the whole address_space.
536	The Writeback tag is used by filemap*wait* and sync_page* functions,
537	via filemap_fdatawait_range, to wait for all writeback to
538	complete.  While waiting ->sync_page (if defined) will be called on
539	each page that is found to require writeback.
541	An address_space handler may attach extra information to a page,
542	typically using the 'private' field in the 'struct page'.  If such
543	information is attached, the PG_Private flag should be set.  This will
544	cause various VM routines to make extra calls into the address_space
545	handler to deal with that data.
547	An address space acts as an intermediate between storage and
548	application.  Data is read into the address space a whole page at a
549	time, and provided to the application either by copying of the page,
550	or by memory-mapping the page.
551	Data is written into the address space by the application, and then
552	written-back to storage typically in whole pages, however the
553	address_space has finer control of write sizes.
555	The read process essentially only requires 'readpage'.  The write
556	process is more complicated and uses write_begin/write_end or
557	set_page_dirty to write data into the address_space, and writepage,
558	sync_page, and writepages to writeback data to storage.
560	Adding and removing pages to/from an address_space is protected by the
561	inode's i_mutex.
563	When data is written to a page, the PG_Dirty flag should be set.  It
564	typically remains set until writepage asks for it to be written.  This
565	should clear PG_Dirty and set PG_Writeback.  It can be actually
566	written at any point after PG_Dirty is clear.  Once it is known to be
567	safe, PG_Writeback is cleared.
569	Writeback makes use of a writeback_control structure...
571	struct address_space_operations
572	-------------------------------
574	This describes how the VFS can manipulate mapping of a file to page cache in
575	your filesystem. The following members are defined:
577	struct address_space_operations {
578		int (*writepage)(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc);
579		int (*readpage)(struct file *, struct page *);
580		int (*writepages)(struct address_space *, struct writeback_control *);
581		int (*set_page_dirty)(struct page *page);
582		int (*readpages)(struct file *filp, struct address_space *mapping,
583				struct list_head *pages, unsigned nr_pages);
584		int (*write_begin)(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
585					loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
586					struct page **pagep, void **fsdata);
587		int (*write_end)(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
588					loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
589					struct page *page, void *fsdata);
590		sector_t (*bmap)(struct address_space *, sector_t);
591		void (*invalidatepage) (struct page *, unsigned int, unsigned int);
592		int (*releasepage) (struct page *, int);
593		void (*freepage)(struct page *);
594		ssize_t (*direct_IO)(struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *iter);
595		/* migrate the contents of a page to the specified target */
596		int (*migratepage) (struct page *, struct page *);
597		int (*launder_page) (struct page *);
598		int (*is_partially_uptodate) (struct page *, unsigned long,
599						unsigned long);
600		void (*is_dirty_writeback) (struct page *, bool *, bool *);
601		int (*error_remove_page) (struct mapping *mapping, struct page *page);
602		int (*swap_activate)(struct file *);
603		int (*swap_deactivate)(struct file *);
604	};
606	  writepage: called by the VM to write a dirty page to backing store.
607	      This may happen for data integrity reasons (i.e. 'sync'), or
608	      to free up memory (flush).  The difference can be seen in
609	      wbc->sync_mode.
610	      The PG_Dirty flag has been cleared and PageLocked is true.
611	      writepage should start writeout, should set PG_Writeback,
612	      and should make sure the page is unlocked, either synchronously
613	      or asynchronously when the write operation completes.
615	      If wbc->sync_mode is WB_SYNC_NONE, ->writepage doesn't have to
616	      try too hard if there are problems, and may choose to write out
617	      other pages from the mapping if that is easier (e.g. due to
618	      internal dependencies).  If it chooses not to start writeout, it
619	      should return AOP_WRITEPAGE_ACTIVATE so that the VM will not keep
620	      calling ->writepage on that page.
622	      See the file "Locking" for more details.
624	  readpage: called by the VM to read a page from backing store.
625	       The page will be Locked when readpage is called, and should be
626	       unlocked and marked uptodate once the read completes.
627	       If ->readpage discovers that it needs to unlock the page for
628	       some reason, it can do so, and then return AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE.
629	       In this case, the page will be relocated, relocked and if
630	       that all succeeds, ->readpage will be called again.
632	  writepages: called by the VM to write out pages associated with the
633	  	address_space object.  If wbc->sync_mode is WBC_SYNC_ALL, then
634	  	the writeback_control will specify a range of pages that must be
635	  	written out.  If it is WBC_SYNC_NONE, then a nr_to_write is given
636		and that many pages should be written if possible.
637		If no ->writepages is given, then mpage_writepages is used
638	  	instead.  This will choose pages from the address space that are
639	  	tagged as DIRTY and will pass them to ->writepage.
641	  set_page_dirty: called by the VM to set a page dirty.
642	        This is particularly needed if an address space attaches
643	        private data to a page, and that data needs to be updated when
644	        a page is dirtied.  This is called, for example, when a memory
645		mapped page gets modified.
646		If defined, it should set the PageDirty flag, and the
647	        PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY tag in the radix tree.
649	  readpages: called by the VM to read pages associated with the address_space
650	  	object. This is essentially just a vector version of
651	  	readpage.  Instead of just one page, several pages are
652	  	requested.
653		readpages is only used for read-ahead, so read errors are
654	  	ignored.  If anything goes wrong, feel free to give up.
656	  write_begin:
657		Called by the generic buffered write code to ask the filesystem to
658		prepare to write len bytes at the given offset in the file. The
659		address_space should check that the write will be able to complete,
660		by allocating space if necessary and doing any other internal
661		housekeeping.  If the write will update parts of any basic-blocks on
662		storage, then those blocks should be pre-read (if they haven't been
663		read already) so that the updated blocks can be written out properly.
665	        The filesystem must return the locked pagecache page for the specified
666		offset, in *pagep, for the caller to write into.
668		It must be able to cope with short writes (where the length passed to
669		write_begin is greater than the number of bytes copied into the page).
671		flags is a field for AOP_FLAG_xxx flags, described in
672		include/linux/fs.h.
674	        A void * may be returned in fsdata, which then gets passed into
675	        write_end.
677	        Returns 0 on success; < 0 on failure (which is the error code), in
678		which case write_end is not called.
680	  write_end: After a successful write_begin, and data copy, write_end must
681	        be called. len is the original len passed to write_begin, and copied
682	        is the amount that was able to be copied (copied == len is always true
683		if write_begin was called with the AOP_FLAG_UNINTERRUPTIBLE flag).
685	        The filesystem must take care of unlocking the page and releasing it
686	        refcount, and updating i_size.
688	        Returns < 0 on failure, otherwise the number of bytes (<= 'copied')
689	        that were able to be copied into pagecache.
691	  bmap: called by the VFS to map a logical block offset within object to
692	  	physical block number. This method is used by the FIBMAP
693	  	ioctl and for working with swap-files.  To be able to swap to
694	  	a file, the file must have a stable mapping to a block
695	  	device.  The swap system does not go through the filesystem
696	  	but instead uses bmap to find out where the blocks in the file
697	  	are and uses those addresses directly.
699	  dentry_open: *WARNING: probably going away soon, do not use!* This is an
700		alternative to f_op->open(), the difference is that this method may open
701		a file not necessarily originating from the same filesystem as the one
702		i_op->open() was called on.  It may be useful for stacking filesystems
703		which want to allow native I/O directly on underlying files.
706	  invalidatepage: If a page has PagePrivate set, then invalidatepage
707	        will be called when part or all of the page is to be removed
708		from the address space.  This generally corresponds to either a
709		truncation, punch hole  or a complete invalidation of the address
710		space (in the latter case 'offset' will always be 0 and 'length'
711		will be PAGE_SIZE). Any private data associated with the page
712		should be updated to reflect this truncation.  If offset is 0 and
713		length is PAGE_SIZE, then the private data should be released,
714		because the page must be able to be completely discarded.  This may
715		be done by calling the ->releasepage function, but in this case the
716		release MUST succeed.
718	  releasepage: releasepage is called on PagePrivate pages to indicate
719	        that the page should be freed if possible.  ->releasepage
720	        should remove any private data from the page and clear the
721	        PagePrivate flag. If releasepage() fails for some reason, it must
722		indicate failure with a 0 return value.
723		releasepage() is used in two distinct though related cases.  The
724		first is when the VM finds a clean page with no active users and
725	        wants to make it a free page.  If ->releasepage succeeds, the
726	        page will be removed from the address_space and become free.
728		The second case is when a request has been made to invalidate
729	        some or all pages in an address_space.  This can happen
730	        through the fadvice(POSIX_FADV_DONTNEED) system call or by the
731	        filesystem explicitly requesting it as nfs and 9fs do (when
732	        they believe the cache may be out of date with storage) by
733	        calling invalidate_inode_pages2().
734		If the filesystem makes such a call, and needs to be certain
735	        that all pages are invalidated, then its releasepage will
736	        need to ensure this.  Possibly it can clear the PageUptodate
737	        bit if it cannot free private data yet.
739	  freepage: freepage is called once the page is no longer visible in
740	        the page cache in order to allow the cleanup of any private
741		data. Since it may be called by the memory reclaimer, it
742		should not assume that the original address_space mapping still
743		exists, and it should not block.
745	  direct_IO: called by the generic read/write routines to perform
746	        direct_IO - that is IO requests which bypass the page cache
747	        and transfer data directly between the storage and the
748	        application's address space.
750	  migrate_page:  This is used to compact the physical memory usage.
751	        If the VM wants to relocate a page (maybe off a memory card
752	        that is signalling imminent failure) it will pass a new page
753		and an old page to this function.  migrate_page should
754		transfer any private data across and update any references
755	        that it has to the page.
757	  launder_page: Called before freeing a page - it writes back the dirty page. To
758	  	prevent redirtying the page, it is kept locked during the whole
759		operation.
761	  is_partially_uptodate: Called by the VM when reading a file through the
762		pagecache when the underlying blocksize != pagesize. If the required
763		block is up to date then the read can complete without needing the IO
764		to bring the whole page up to date.
766	  is_dirty_writeback: Called by the VM when attempting to reclaim a page.
767		The VM uses dirty and writeback information to determine if it needs
768		to stall to allow flushers a chance to complete some IO. Ordinarily
769		it can use PageDirty and PageWriteback but some filesystems have
770		more complex state (unstable pages in NFS prevent reclaim) or
771		do not set those flags due to locking problems. This callback
772		allows a filesystem to indicate to the VM if a page should be
773		treated as dirty or writeback for the purposes of stalling.
775	  error_remove_page: normally set to generic_error_remove_page if truncation
776		is ok for this address space. Used for memory failure handling.
777		Setting this implies you deal with pages going away under you,
778		unless you have them locked or reference counts increased.
780	  swap_activate: Called when swapon is used on a file to allocate
781		space if necessary and pin the block lookup information in
782		memory. A return value of zero indicates success,
783		in which case this file can be used to back swapspace. The
784		swapspace operations will be proxied to this address space's
785		->swap_{out,in} methods.
787	  swap_deactivate: Called during swapoff on files where swap_activate
788		was successful.
791	The File Object
792	===============
794	A file object represents a file opened by a process.
797	struct file_operations
798	----------------------
800	This describes how the VFS can manipulate an open file. As of kernel
801	4.1, the following members are defined:
803	struct file_operations {
804		struct module *owner;
805		loff_t (*llseek) (struct file *, loff_t, int);
806		ssize_t (*read) (struct file *, char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
807		ssize_t (*write) (struct file *, const char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
808		ssize_t (*read_iter) (struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *);
809		ssize_t (*write_iter) (struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *);
810		int (*iterate) (struct file *, struct dir_context *);
811		unsigned int (*poll) (struct file *, struct poll_table_struct *);
812		long (*unlocked_ioctl) (struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
813		long (*compat_ioctl) (struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
814		int (*mmap) (struct file *, struct vm_area_struct *);
815		int (*mremap)(struct file *, struct vm_area_struct *);
816		int (*open) (struct inode *, struct file *);
817		int (*flush) (struct file *, fl_owner_t id);
818		int (*release) (struct inode *, struct file *);
819		int (*fsync) (struct file *, loff_t, loff_t, int datasync);
820		int (*aio_fsync) (struct kiocb *, int datasync);
821		int (*fasync) (int, struct file *, int);
822		int (*lock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);
823		ssize_t (*sendpage) (struct file *, struct page *, int, size_t, loff_t *, int);
824		unsigned long (*get_unmapped_area)(struct file *, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long);
825		int (*check_flags)(int);
826		int (*flock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);
827		ssize_t (*splice_write)(struct pipe_inode_info *, struct file *, loff_t *, size_t, unsigned int);
828		ssize_t (*splice_read)(struct file *, loff_t *, struct pipe_inode_info *, size_t, unsigned int);
829		int (*setlease)(struct file *, long, struct file_lock **, void **);
830		long (*fallocate)(struct file *file, int mode, loff_t offset,
831				  loff_t len);
832		void (*show_fdinfo)(struct seq_file *m, struct file *f);
833	#ifndef CONFIG_MMU
834		unsigned (*mmap_capabilities)(struct file *);
835	#endif
836	};
838	Again, all methods are called without any locks being held, unless
839	otherwise noted.
841	  llseek: called when the VFS needs to move the file position index
843	  read: called by read(2) and related system calls
845	  read_iter: possibly asynchronous read with iov_iter as destination
847	  write: called by write(2) and related system calls
849	  write_iter: possibly asynchronous write with iov_iter as source
851	  iterate: called when the VFS needs to read the directory contents
853	  poll: called by the VFS when a process wants to check if there is
854		activity on this file and (optionally) go to sleep until there
855		is activity. Called by the select(2) and poll(2) system calls
857	  unlocked_ioctl: called by the ioctl(2) system call.
859	  compat_ioctl: called by the ioctl(2) system call when 32 bit system calls
860	 	 are used on 64 bit kernels.
862	  mmap: called by the mmap(2) system call
864	  open: called by the VFS when an inode should be opened. When the VFS
865		opens a file, it creates a new "struct file". It then calls the
866		open method for the newly allocated file structure. You might
867		think that the open method really belongs in
868		"struct inode_operations", and you may be right. I think it's
869		done the way it is because it makes filesystems simpler to
870		implement. The open() method is a good place to initialize the
871		"private_data" member in the file structure if you want to point
872		to a device structure
874	  flush: called by the close(2) system call to flush a file
876	  release: called when the last reference to an open file is closed
878	  fsync: called by the fsync(2) system call
880	  fasync: called by the fcntl(2) system call when asynchronous
881		(non-blocking) mode is enabled for a file
883	  lock: called by the fcntl(2) system call for F_GETLK, F_SETLK, and F_SETLKW
884	  	commands
886	  get_unmapped_area: called by the mmap(2) system call
888	  check_flags: called by the fcntl(2) system call for F_SETFL command
890	  flock: called by the flock(2) system call
892	  splice_write: called by the VFS to splice data from a pipe to a file. This
893			method is used by the splice(2) system call
895	  splice_read: called by the VFS to splice data from file to a pipe. This
896		       method is used by the splice(2) system call
898	  setlease: called by the VFS to set or release a file lock lease. setlease
899		    implementations should call generic_setlease to record or remove
900		    the lease in the inode after setting it.
902	  fallocate: called by the VFS to preallocate blocks or punch a hole.
904	Note that the file operations are implemented by the specific
905	filesystem in which the inode resides. When opening a device node
906	(character or block special) most filesystems will call special
907	support routines in the VFS which will locate the required device
908	driver information. These support routines replace the filesystem file
909	operations with those for the device driver, and then proceed to call
910	the new open() method for the file. This is how opening a device file
911	in the filesystem eventually ends up calling the device driver open()
912	method.
915	Directory Entry Cache (dcache)
916	==============================
919	struct dentry_operations
920	------------------------
922	This describes how a filesystem can overload the standard dentry
923	operations. Dentries and the dcache are the domain of the VFS and the
924	individual filesystem implementations. Device drivers have no business
925	here. These methods may be set to NULL, as they are either optional or
926	the VFS uses a default. As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are
927	defined:
929	struct dentry_operations {
930		int (*d_revalidate)(struct dentry *, unsigned int);
931		int (*d_weak_revalidate)(struct dentry *, unsigned int);
932		int (*d_hash)(const struct dentry *, struct qstr *);
933		int (*d_compare)(const struct dentry *, const struct dentry *,
934				unsigned int, const char *, const struct qstr *);
935		int (*d_delete)(const struct dentry *);
936		void (*d_release)(struct dentry *);
937		void (*d_iput)(struct dentry *, struct inode *);
938		char *(*d_dname)(struct dentry *, char *, int);
939		struct vfsmount *(*d_automount)(struct path *);
940		int (*d_manage)(struct dentry *, bool);
941	};
943	  d_revalidate: called when the VFS needs to revalidate a dentry. This
944		is called whenever a name look-up finds a dentry in the
945		dcache. Most local filesystems leave this as NULL, because all their
946		dentries in the dcache are valid. Network filesystems are different
947		since things can change on the server without the client necessarily
948		being aware of it.
950		This function should return a positive value if the dentry is still
951		valid, and zero or a negative error code if it isn't.
953		d_revalidate may be called in rcu-walk mode (flags & LOOKUP_RCU).
954		If in rcu-walk mode, the filesystem must revalidate the dentry without
955		blocking or storing to the dentry, d_parent and d_inode should not be
956		used without care (because they can change and, in d_inode case, even
957		become NULL under us).
959		If a situation is encountered that rcu-walk cannot handle, return
960		-ECHILD and it will be called again in ref-walk mode.
962	 d_weak_revalidate: called when the VFS needs to revalidate a "jumped" dentry.
963		This is called when a path-walk ends at dentry that was not acquired by
964		doing a lookup in the parent directory. This includes "/", "." and "..",
965		as well as procfs-style symlinks and mountpoint traversal.
967		In this case, we are less concerned with whether the dentry is still
968		fully correct, but rather that the inode is still valid. As with
969		d_revalidate, most local filesystems will set this to NULL since their
970		dcache entries are always valid.
972		This function has the same return code semantics as d_revalidate.
974		d_weak_revalidate is only called after leaving rcu-walk mode.
976	  d_hash: called when the VFS adds a dentry to the hash table. The first
977		dentry passed to d_hash is the parent directory that the name is
978		to be hashed into.
980		Same locking and synchronisation rules as d_compare regarding
981		what is safe to dereference etc.
983	  d_compare: called to compare a dentry name with a given name. The first
984		dentry is the parent of the dentry to be compared, the second is
985		the child dentry. len and name string are properties of the dentry
986		to be compared. qstr is the name to compare it with.
988		Must be constant and idempotent, and should not take locks if
989		possible, and should not or store into the dentry.
990		Should not dereference pointers outside the dentry without
991		lots of care (eg.  d_parent, d_inode, d_name should not be used).
993		However, our vfsmount is pinned, and RCU held, so the dentries and
994		inodes won't disappear, neither will our sb or filesystem module.
995		->d_sb may be used.
997		It is a tricky calling convention because it needs to be called under
998		"rcu-walk", ie. without any locks or references on things.
1000	  d_delete: called when the last reference to a dentry is dropped and the
1001		dcache is deciding whether or not to cache it. Return 1 to delete
1002		immediately, or 0 to cache the dentry. Default is NULL which means to
1003		always cache a reachable dentry. d_delete must be constant and
1004		idempotent.
1006	  d_release: called when a dentry is really deallocated
1008	  d_iput: called when a dentry loses its inode (just prior to its
1009		being deallocated). The default when this is NULL is that the
1010		VFS calls iput(). If you define this method, you must call
1011		iput() yourself
1013	  d_dname: called when the pathname of a dentry should be generated.
1014		Useful for some pseudo filesystems (sockfs, pipefs, ...) to delay
1015		pathname generation. (Instead of doing it when dentry is created,
1016		it's done only when the path is needed.). Real filesystems probably
1017		dont want to use it, because their dentries are present in global
1018		dcache hash, so their hash should be an invariant. As no lock is
1019		held, d_dname() should not try to modify the dentry itself, unless
1020		appropriate SMP safety is used. CAUTION : d_path() logic is quite
1021		tricky. The correct way to return for example "Hello" is to put it
1022		at the end of the buffer, and returns a pointer to the first char.
1023		dynamic_dname() helper function is provided to take care of this.
1025	  d_automount: called when an automount dentry is to be traversed (optional).
1026		This should create a new VFS mount record and return the record to the
1027		caller.  The caller is supplied with a path parameter giving the
1028		automount directory to describe the automount target and the parent
1029		VFS mount record to provide inheritable mount parameters.  NULL should
1030		be returned if someone else managed to make the automount first.  If
1031		the vfsmount creation failed, then an error code should be returned.
1032		If -EISDIR is returned, then the directory will be treated as an
1033		ordinary directory and returned to pathwalk to continue walking.
1035		If a vfsmount is returned, the caller will attempt to mount it on the
1036		mountpoint and will remove the vfsmount from its expiration list in
1037		the case of failure.  The vfsmount should be returned with 2 refs on
1038		it to prevent automatic expiration - the caller will clean up the
1039		additional ref.
1041		This function is only used if DCACHE_NEED_AUTOMOUNT is set on the
1042		dentry.  This is set by __d_instantiate() if S_AUTOMOUNT is set on the
1043		inode being added.
1045	  d_manage: called to allow the filesystem to manage the transition from a
1046		dentry (optional).  This allows autofs, for example, to hold up clients
1047		waiting to explore behind a 'mountpoint' whilst letting the daemon go
1048		past and construct the subtree there.  0 should be returned to let the
1049		calling process continue.  -EISDIR can be returned to tell pathwalk to
1050		use this directory as an ordinary directory and to ignore anything
1051		mounted on it and not to check the automount flag.  Any other error
1052		code will abort pathwalk completely.
1054		If the 'rcu_walk' parameter is true, then the caller is doing a
1055		pathwalk in RCU-walk mode.  Sleeping is not permitted in this mode,
1056		and the caller can be asked to leave it and call again by returning
1057		-ECHILD.  -EISDIR may also be returned to tell pathwalk to
1058		ignore d_automount or any mounts.
1060		This function is only used if DCACHE_MANAGE_TRANSIT is set on the
1061		dentry being transited from.
1063	Example :
1065	static char *pipefs_dname(struct dentry *dent, char *buffer, int buflen)
1066	{
1067		return dynamic_dname(dentry, buffer, buflen, "pipe:[%lu]",
1068					dentry->d_inode->i_ino);
1069	}
1071	Each dentry has a pointer to its parent dentry, as well as a hash list
1072	of child dentries. Child dentries are basically like files in a
1073	directory.
1076	Directory Entry Cache API
1077	--------------------------
1079	There are a number of functions defined which permit a filesystem to
1080	manipulate dentries:
1082	  dget: open a new handle for an existing dentry (this just increments
1083		the usage count)
1085	  dput: close a handle for a dentry (decrements the usage count). If
1086		the usage count drops to 0, and the dentry is still in its
1087		parent's hash, the "d_delete" method is called to check whether
1088		it should be cached. If it should not be cached, or if the dentry
1089		is not hashed, it is deleted. Otherwise cached dentries are put
1090		into an LRU list to be reclaimed on memory shortage.
1092	  d_drop: this unhashes a dentry from its parents hash list. A
1093		subsequent call to dput() will deallocate the dentry if its
1094		usage count drops to 0
1096	  d_delete: delete a dentry. If there are no other open references to
1097		the dentry then the dentry is turned into a negative dentry
1098		(the d_iput() method is called). If there are other
1099		references, then d_drop() is called instead
1101	  d_add: add a dentry to its parents hash list and then calls
1102		d_instantiate()
1104	  d_instantiate: add a dentry to the alias hash list for the inode and
1105		updates the "d_inode" member. The "i_count" member in the
1106		inode structure should be set/incremented. If the inode
1107		pointer is NULL, the dentry is called a "negative
1108		dentry". This function is commonly called when an inode is
1109		created for an existing negative dentry
1111	  d_lookup: look up a dentry given its parent and path name component
1112		It looks up the child of that given name from the dcache
1113		hash table. If it is found, the reference count is incremented
1114		and the dentry is returned. The caller must use dput()
1115		to free the dentry when it finishes using it.
1117	Mount Options
1118	=============
1120	Parsing options
1121	---------------
1123	On mount and remount the filesystem is passed a string containing a
1124	comma separated list of mount options.  The options can have either of
1125	these forms:
1127	  option
1128	  option=value
1130	The <linux/parser.h> header defines an API that helps parse these
1131	options.  There are plenty of examples on how to use it in existing
1132	filesystems.
1134	Showing options
1135	---------------
1137	If a filesystem accepts mount options, it must define show_options()
1138	to show all the currently active options.  The rules are:
1140	  - options MUST be shown which are not default or their values differ
1141	    from the default
1143	  - options MAY be shown which are enabled by default or have their
1144	    default value
1146	Options used only internally between a mount helper and the kernel
1147	(such as file descriptors), or which only have an effect during the
1148	mounting (such as ones controlling the creation of a journal) are exempt
1149	from the above rules.
1151	The underlying reason for the above rules is to make sure, that a
1152	mount can be accurately replicated (e.g. umounting and mounting again)
1153	based on the information found in /proc/mounts.
1155	A simple method of saving options at mount/remount time and showing
1156	them is provided with the save_mount_options() and
1157	generic_show_options() helper functions.  Please note, that using
1158	these may have drawbacks.  For more info see header comments for these
1159	functions in fs/namespace.c.
1161	Resources
1162	=========
1164	(Note some of these resources are not up-to-date with the latest kernel
1165	 version.)
1167	Creating Linux virtual filesystems. 2002
1168	    <http://lwn.net/Articles/13325/>
1170	The Linux Virtual File-system Layer by Neil Brown. 1999
1171	    <http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~neilb/oss/linux-commentary/vfs.html>
1173	A tour of the Linux VFS by Michael K. Johnson. 1996
1174	    <http://www.tldp.org/LDP/khg/HyperNews/get/fs/vfstour.html>
1176	A small trail through the Linux kernel by Andries Brouwer. 2001
1177	    <http://www.win.tue.nl/~aeb/linux/vfs/trail.html>
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