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Based on kernel version 4.8. Page generated on 2016-10-06 23:10 EST.

2			Linux kernel coding style
4	This is a short document describing the preferred coding style for the
5	linux kernel.  Coding style is very personal, and I won't _force_ my
6	views on anybody, but this is what goes for anything that I have to be
7	able to maintain, and I'd prefer it for most other things too.  Please
8	at least consider the points made here.
10	First off, I'd suggest printing out a copy of the GNU coding standards,
11	and NOT read it.  Burn them, it's a great symbolic gesture.
13	Anyway, here goes:
16			Chapter 1: Indentation
18	Tabs are 8 characters, and thus indentations are also 8 characters.
19	There are heretic movements that try to make indentations 4 (or even 2!)
20	characters deep, and that is akin to trying to define the value of PI to
21	be 3.
23	Rationale: The whole idea behind indentation is to clearly define where
24	a block of control starts and ends.  Especially when you've been looking
25	at your screen for 20 straight hours, you'll find it a lot easier to see
26	how the indentation works if you have large indentations.
28	Now, some people will claim that having 8-character indentations makes
29	the code move too far to the right, and makes it hard to read on a
30	80-character terminal screen.  The answer to that is that if you need
31	more than 3 levels of indentation, you're screwed anyway, and should fix
32	your program.
34	In short, 8-char indents make things easier to read, and have the added
35	benefit of warning you when you're nesting your functions too deep.
36	Heed that warning.
38	The preferred way to ease multiple indentation levels in a switch statement is
39	to align the "switch" and its subordinate "case" labels in the same column
40	instead of "double-indenting" the "case" labels.  E.g.:
42		switch (suffix) {
43		case 'G':
44		case 'g':
45			mem <<= 30;
46			break;
47		case 'M':
48		case 'm':
49			mem <<= 20;
50			break;
51		case 'K':
52		case 'k':
53			mem <<= 10;
54			/* fall through */
55		default:
56			break;
57		}
59	Don't put multiple statements on a single line unless you have
60	something to hide:
62		if (condition) do_this;
63		  do_something_everytime;
65	Don't put multiple assignments on a single line either.  Kernel coding style
66	is super simple.  Avoid tricky expressions.
68	Outside of comments, documentation and except in Kconfig, spaces are never
69	used for indentation, and the above example is deliberately broken.
71	Get a decent editor and don't leave whitespace at the end of lines.
74			Chapter 2: Breaking long lines and strings
76	Coding style is all about readability and maintainability using commonly
77	available tools.
79	The limit on the length of lines is 80 columns and this is a strongly
80	preferred limit.
82	Statements longer than 80 columns will be broken into sensible chunks, unless
83	exceeding 80 columns significantly increases readability and does not hide
84	information. Descendants are always substantially shorter than the parent and
85	are placed substantially to the right. The same applies to function headers
86	with a long argument list. However, never break user-visible strings such as
87	printk messages, because that breaks the ability to grep for them.
90			Chapter 3: Placing Braces and Spaces
92	The other issue that always comes up in C styling is the placement of
93	braces.  Unlike the indent size, there are few technical reasons to
94	choose one placement strategy over the other, but the preferred way, as
95	shown to us by the prophets Kernighan and Ritchie, is to put the opening
96	brace last on the line, and put the closing brace first, thusly:
98		if (x is true) {
99			we do y
100		}
102	This applies to all non-function statement blocks (if, switch, for,
103	while, do).  E.g.:
105		switch (action) {
106		case KOBJ_ADD:
107			return "add";
108		case KOBJ_REMOVE:
109			return "remove";
110		case KOBJ_CHANGE:
111			return "change";
112		default:
113			return NULL;
114		}
116	However, there is one special case, namely functions: they have the
117	opening brace at the beginning of the next line, thus:
119		int function(int x)
120		{
121			body of function
122		}
124	Heretic people all over the world have claimed that this inconsistency
125	is ...  well ...  inconsistent, but all right-thinking people know that
126	(a) K&R are _right_ and (b) K&R are right.  Besides, functions are
127	special anyway (you can't nest them in C).
129	Note that the closing brace is empty on a line of its own, _except_ in
130	the cases where it is followed by a continuation of the same statement,
131	ie a "while" in a do-statement or an "else" in an if-statement, like
132	this:
134		do {
135			body of do-loop
136		} while (condition);
138	and
140		if (x == y) {
141			..
142		} else if (x > y) {
143			...
144		} else {
145			....
146		}
148	Rationale: K&R.
150	Also, note that this brace-placement also minimizes the number of empty
151	(or almost empty) lines, without any loss of readability.  Thus, as the
152	supply of new-lines on your screen is not a renewable resource (think
153	25-line terminal screens here), you have more empty lines to put
154	comments on.
156	Do not unnecessarily use braces where a single statement will do.
158		if (condition)
159			action();
161	and
163		if (condition)
164			do_this();
165		else
166			do_that();
168	This does not apply if only one branch of a conditional statement is a single
169	statement; in the latter case use braces in both branches:
171		if (condition) {
172			do_this();
173			do_that();
174		} else {
175			otherwise();
176		}
178			3.1:  Spaces
180	Linux kernel style for use of spaces depends (mostly) on
181	function-versus-keyword usage.  Use a space after (most) keywords.  The
182	notable exceptions are sizeof, typeof, alignof, and __attribute__, which look
183	somewhat like functions (and are usually used with parentheses in Linux,
184	although they are not required in the language, as in: "sizeof info" after
185	"struct fileinfo info;" is declared).
187	So use a space after these keywords:
189		if, switch, case, for, do, while
191	but not with sizeof, typeof, alignof, or __attribute__.  E.g.,
193		s = sizeof(struct file);
195	Do not add spaces around (inside) parenthesized expressions.  This example is
196	*bad*:
198		s = sizeof( struct file );
200	When declaring pointer data or a function that returns a pointer type, the
201	preferred use of '*' is adjacent to the data name or function name and not
202	adjacent to the type name.  Examples:
204		char *linux_banner;
205		unsigned long long memparse(char *ptr, char **retptr);
206		char *match_strdup(substring_t *s);
208	Use one space around (on each side of) most binary and ternary operators,
209	such as any of these:
211		=  +  -  <  >  *  /  %  |  &  ^  <=  >=  ==  !=  ?  :
213	but no space after unary operators:
215		&  *  +  -  ~  !  sizeof  typeof  alignof  __attribute__  defined
217	no space before the postfix increment & decrement unary operators:
219		++  --
221	no space after the prefix increment & decrement unary operators:
223		++  --
225	and no space around the '.' and "->" structure member operators.
227	Do not leave trailing whitespace at the ends of lines.  Some editors with
228	"smart" indentation will insert whitespace at the beginning of new lines as
229	appropriate, so you can start typing the next line of code right away.
230	However, some such editors do not remove the whitespace if you end up not
231	putting a line of code there, such as if you leave a blank line.  As a result,
232	you end up with lines containing trailing whitespace.
234	Git will warn you about patches that introduce trailing whitespace, and can
235	optionally strip the trailing whitespace for you; however, if applying a series
236	of patches, this may make later patches in the series fail by changing their
237	context lines.
240			Chapter 4: Naming
242	C is a Spartan language, and so should your naming be.  Unlike Modula-2
243	and Pascal programmers, C programmers do not use cute names like
244	ThisVariableIsATemporaryCounter.  A C programmer would call that
245	variable "tmp", which is much easier to write, and not the least more
246	difficult to understand.
248	HOWEVER, while mixed-case names are frowned upon, descriptive names for
249	global variables are a must.  To call a global function "foo" is a
250	shooting offense.
252	GLOBAL variables (to be used only if you _really_ need them) need to
253	have descriptive names, as do global functions.  If you have a function
254	that counts the number of active users, you should call that
255	"count_active_users()" or similar, you should _not_ call it "cntusr()".
257	Encoding the type of a function into the name (so-called Hungarian
258	notation) is brain damaged - the compiler knows the types anyway and can
259	check those, and it only confuses the programmer.  No wonder MicroSoft
260	makes buggy programs.
262	LOCAL variable names should be short, and to the point.  If you have
263	some random integer loop counter, it should probably be called "i".
264	Calling it "loop_counter" is non-productive, if there is no chance of it
265	being mis-understood.  Similarly, "tmp" can be just about any type of
266	variable that is used to hold a temporary value.
268	If you are afraid to mix up your local variable names, you have another
269	problem, which is called the function-growth-hormone-imbalance syndrome.
270	See chapter 6 (Functions).
273			Chapter 5: Typedefs
275	Please don't use things like "vps_t".
276	It's a _mistake_ to use typedef for structures and pointers. When you see a
278		vps_t a;
280	in the source, what does it mean?
281	In contrast, if it says
283		struct virtual_container *a;
285	you can actually tell what "a" is.
287	Lots of people think that typedefs "help readability". Not so. They are
288	useful only for:
290	 (a) totally opaque objects (where the typedef is actively used to _hide_
291	     what the object is).
293	     Example: "pte_t" etc. opaque objects that you can only access using
294	     the proper accessor functions.
296	     NOTE! Opaqueness and "accessor functions" are not good in themselves.
297	     The reason we have them for things like pte_t etc. is that there
298	     really is absolutely _zero_ portably accessible information there.
300	 (b) Clear integer types, where the abstraction _helps_ avoid confusion
301	     whether it is "int" or "long".
303	     u8/u16/u32 are perfectly fine typedefs, although they fit into
304	     category (d) better than here.
306	     NOTE! Again - there needs to be a _reason_ for this. If something is
307	     "unsigned long", then there's no reason to do
309		typedef unsigned long myflags_t;
311	     but if there is a clear reason for why it under certain circumstances
312	     might be an "unsigned int" and under other configurations might be
313	     "unsigned long", then by all means go ahead and use a typedef.
315	 (c) when you use sparse to literally create a _new_ type for
316	     type-checking.
318	 (d) New types which are identical to standard C99 types, in certain
319	     exceptional circumstances.
321	     Although it would only take a short amount of time for the eyes and
322	     brain to become accustomed to the standard types like 'uint32_t',
323	     some people object to their use anyway.
325	     Therefore, the Linux-specific 'u8/u16/u32/u64' types and their
326	     signed equivalents which are identical to standard types are
327	     permitted -- although they are not mandatory in new code of your
328	     own.
330	     When editing existing code which already uses one or the other set
331	     of types, you should conform to the existing choices in that code.
333	 (e) Types safe for use in userspace.
335	     In certain structures which are visible to userspace, we cannot
336	     require C99 types and cannot use the 'u32' form above. Thus, we
337	     use __u32 and similar types in all structures which are shared
338	     with userspace.
340	Maybe there are other cases too, but the rule should basically be to NEVER
341	EVER use a typedef unless you can clearly match one of those rules.
343	In general, a pointer, or a struct that has elements that can reasonably
344	be directly accessed should _never_ be a typedef.
347			Chapter 6: Functions
349	Functions should be short and sweet, and do just one thing.  They should
350	fit on one or two screenfuls of text (the ISO/ANSI screen size is 80x24,
351	as we all know), and do one thing and do that well.
353	The maximum length of a function is inversely proportional to the
354	complexity and indentation level of that function.  So, if you have a
355	conceptually simple function that is just one long (but simple)
356	case-statement, where you have to do lots of small things for a lot of
357	different cases, it's OK to have a longer function.
359	However, if you have a complex function, and you suspect that a
360	less-than-gifted first-year high-school student might not even
361	understand what the function is all about, you should adhere to the
362	maximum limits all the more closely.  Use helper functions with
363	descriptive names (you can ask the compiler to in-line them if you think
364	it's performance-critical, and it will probably do a better job of it
365	than you would have done).
367	Another measure of the function is the number of local variables.  They
368	shouldn't exceed 5-10, or you're doing something wrong.  Re-think the
369	function, and split it into smaller pieces.  A human brain can
370	generally easily keep track of about 7 different things, anything more
371	and it gets confused.  You know you're brilliant, but maybe you'd like
372	to understand what you did 2 weeks from now.
374	In source files, separate functions with one blank line.  If the function is
375	exported, the EXPORT* macro for it should follow immediately after the closing
376	function brace line.  E.g.:
378		int system_is_up(void)
379		{
380			return system_state == SYSTEM_RUNNING;
381		}
382		EXPORT_SYMBOL(system_is_up);
384	In function prototypes, include parameter names with their data types.
385	Although this is not required by the C language, it is preferred in Linux
386	because it is a simple way to add valuable information for the reader.
389			Chapter 7: Centralized exiting of functions
391	Albeit deprecated by some people, the equivalent of the goto statement is
392	used frequently by compilers in form of the unconditional jump instruction.
394	The goto statement comes in handy when a function exits from multiple
395	locations and some common work such as cleanup has to be done.  If there is no
396	cleanup needed then just return directly.
398	Choose label names which say what the goto does or why the goto exists.  An
399	example of a good name could be "out_buffer:" if the goto frees "buffer".  Avoid
400	using GW-BASIC names like "err1:" and "err2:".  Also don't name them after the
401	goto location like "err_kmalloc_failed:"
403	The rationale for using gotos is:
405	- unconditional statements are easier to understand and follow
406	- nesting is reduced
407	- errors by not updating individual exit points when making
408	    modifications are prevented
409	- saves the compiler work to optimize redundant code away ;)
411		int fun(int a)
412		{
413			int result = 0;
414			char *buffer;
416			buffer = kmalloc(SIZE, GFP_KERNEL);
417			if (!buffer)
418				return -ENOMEM;
420			if (condition1) {
421				while (loop1) {
422					...
423				}
424				result = 1;
425				goto out_buffer;
426			}
427			...
428		out_buffer:
429			kfree(buffer);
430			return result;
431		}
433	A common type of bug to be aware of is "one err bugs" which look like this:
435		err:
436			kfree(foo->bar);
437			kfree(foo);
438			return ret;
440	The bug in this code is that on some exit paths "foo" is NULL.  Normally the
441	fix for this is to split it up into two error labels "err_bar:" and "err_foo:".
444			Chapter 8: Commenting
446	Comments are good, but there is also a danger of over-commenting.  NEVER
447	try to explain HOW your code works in a comment: it's much better to
448	write the code so that the _working_ is obvious, and it's a waste of
449	time to explain badly written code.
451	Generally, you want your comments to tell WHAT your code does, not HOW.
452	Also, try to avoid putting comments inside a function body: if the
453	function is so complex that you need to separately comment parts of it,
454	you should probably go back to chapter 6 for a while.  You can make
455	small comments to note or warn about something particularly clever (or
456	ugly), but try to avoid excess.  Instead, put the comments at the head
457	of the function, telling people what it does, and possibly WHY it does
458	it.
460	When commenting the kernel API functions, please use the kernel-doc format.
461	See the files Documentation/kernel-documentation.rst and scripts/kernel-doc
462	for details.
464	Linux style for comments is the C89 "/* ... */" style.
465	Don't use C99-style "// ..." comments.
467	The preferred style for long (multi-line) comments is:
469		/*
470		 * This is the preferred style for multi-line
471		 * comments in the Linux kernel source code.
472		 * Please use it consistently.
473		 *
474		 * Description:  A column of asterisks on the left side,
475		 * with beginning and ending almost-blank lines.
476		 */
478	For files in net/ and drivers/net/ the preferred style for long (multi-line)
479	comments is a little different.
481		/* The preferred comment style for files in net/ and drivers/net
482		 * looks like this.
483		 *
484		 * It is nearly the same as the generally preferred comment style,
485		 * but there is no initial almost-blank line.
486		 */
488	It's also important to comment data, whether they are basic types or derived
489	types.  To this end, use just one data declaration per line (no commas for
490	multiple data declarations).  This leaves you room for a small comment on each
491	item, explaining its use.
494			Chapter 9: You've made a mess of it
496	That's OK, we all do.  You've probably been told by your long-time Unix
497	user helper that "GNU emacs" automatically formats the C sources for
498	you, and you've noticed that yes, it does do that, but the defaults it
499	uses are less than desirable (in fact, they are worse than random
500	typing - an infinite number of monkeys typing into GNU emacs would never
501	make a good program).
503	So, you can either get rid of GNU emacs, or change it to use saner
504	values.  To do the latter, you can stick the following in your .emacs file:
506	(defun c-lineup-arglist-tabs-only (ignored)
507	  "Line up argument lists by tabs, not spaces"
508	  (let* ((anchor (c-langelem-pos c-syntactic-element))
509	         (column (c-langelem-2nd-pos c-syntactic-element))
510	         (offset (- (1+ column) anchor))
511	         (steps (floor offset c-basic-offset)))
512	    (* (max steps 1)
513	       c-basic-offset)))
515	(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook
516	          (lambda ()
517	            ;; Add kernel style
518	            (c-add-style
519	             "linux-tabs-only"
520	             '("linux" (c-offsets-alist
521	                        (arglist-cont-nonempty
522	                         c-lineup-gcc-asm-reg
523	                         c-lineup-arglist-tabs-only))))))
525	(add-hook 'c-mode-hook
526	          (lambda ()
527	            (let ((filename (buffer-file-name)))
528	              ;; Enable kernel mode for the appropriate files
529	              (when (and filename
530	                         (string-match (expand-file-name "~/src/linux-trees")
531	                                       filename))
532	                (setq indent-tabs-mode t)
533	                (setq show-trailing-whitespace t)
534	                (c-set-style "linux-tabs-only")))))
536	This will make emacs go better with the kernel coding style for C
537	files below ~/src/linux-trees.
539	But even if you fail in getting emacs to do sane formatting, not
540	everything is lost: use "indent".
542	Now, again, GNU indent has the same brain-dead settings that GNU emacs
543	has, which is why you need to give it a few command line options.
544	However, that's not too bad, because even the makers of GNU indent
545	recognize the authority of K&R (the GNU people aren't evil, they are
546	just severely misguided in this matter), so you just give indent the
547	options "-kr -i8" (stands for "K&R, 8 character indents"), or use
548	"scripts/Lindent", which indents in the latest style.
550	"indent" has a lot of options, and especially when it comes to comment
551	re-formatting you may want to take a look at the man page.  But
552	remember: "indent" is not a fix for bad programming.
555			Chapter 10: Kconfig configuration files
557	For all of the Kconfig* configuration files throughout the source tree,
558	the indentation is somewhat different.  Lines under a "config" definition
559	are indented with one tab, while help text is indented an additional two
560	spaces.  Example:
562	config AUDIT
563		bool "Auditing support"
564		depends on NET
565		help
566		  Enable auditing infrastructure that can be used with another
567		  kernel subsystem, such as SELinux (which requires this for
568		  logging of avc messages output).  Does not do system-call
569		  auditing without CONFIG_AUDITSYSCALL.
571	Seriously dangerous features (such as write support for certain
572	filesystems) should advertise this prominently in their prompt string:
574	config ADFS_FS_RW
575		bool "ADFS write support (DANGEROUS)"
576		depends on ADFS_FS
577		...
579	For full documentation on the configuration files, see the file
580	Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-language.txt.
583			Chapter 11: Data structures
585	Data structures that have visibility outside the single-threaded
586	environment they are created and destroyed in should always have
587	reference counts.  In the kernel, garbage collection doesn't exist (and
588	outside the kernel garbage collection is slow and inefficient), which
589	means that you absolutely _have_ to reference count all your uses.
591	Reference counting means that you can avoid locking, and allows multiple
592	users to have access to the data structure in parallel - and not having
593	to worry about the structure suddenly going away from under them just
594	because they slept or did something else for a while.
596	Note that locking is _not_ a replacement for reference counting.
597	Locking is used to keep data structures coherent, while reference
598	counting is a memory management technique.  Usually both are needed, and
599	they are not to be confused with each other.
601	Many data structures can indeed have two levels of reference counting,
602	when there are users of different "classes".  The subclass count counts
603	the number of subclass users, and decrements the global count just once
604	when the subclass count goes to zero.
606	Examples of this kind of "multi-level-reference-counting" can be found in
607	memory management ("struct mm_struct": mm_users and mm_count), and in
608	filesystem code ("struct super_block": s_count and s_active).
610	Remember: if another thread can find your data structure, and you don't
611	have a reference count on it, you almost certainly have a bug.
614			Chapter 12: Macros, Enums and RTL
616	Names of macros defining constants and labels in enums are capitalized.
618		#define CONSTANT 0x12345
620	Enums are preferred when defining several related constants.
622	CAPITALIZED macro names are appreciated but macros resembling functions
623	may be named in lower case.
625	Generally, inline functions are preferable to macros resembling functions.
627	Macros with multiple statements should be enclosed in a do - while block:
629		#define macrofun(a, b, c) 			\
630			do {					\
631				if (a == 5)			\
632					do_this(b, c);		\
633			} while (0)
635	Things to avoid when using macros:
637	1) macros that affect control flow:
639		#define FOO(x)					\
640			do {					\
641				if (blah(x) < 0)		\
642					return -EBUGGERED;	\
643			} while (0)
645	is a _very_ bad idea.  It looks like a function call but exits the "calling"
646	function; don't break the internal parsers of those who will read the code.
648	2) macros that depend on having a local variable with a magic name:
650		#define FOO(val) bar(index, val)
652	might look like a good thing, but it's confusing as hell when one reads the
653	code and it's prone to breakage from seemingly innocent changes.
655	3) macros with arguments that are used as l-values: FOO(x) = y; will
656	bite you if somebody e.g. turns FOO into an inline function.
658	4) forgetting about precedence: macros defining constants using expressions
659	must enclose the expression in parentheses. Beware of similar issues with
660	macros using parameters.
662		#define CONSTANT 0x4000
663		#define CONSTEXP (CONSTANT | 3)
665	5) namespace collisions when defining local variables in macros resembling
666	functions:
668	#define FOO(x)				\
669	({					\
670		typeof(x) ret;			\
671		ret = calc_ret(x);		\
672		(ret);				\
673	})
675	ret is a common name for a local variable - __foo_ret is less likely
676	to collide with an existing variable.
678	The cpp manual deals with macros exhaustively. The gcc internals manual also
679	covers RTL which is used frequently with assembly language in the kernel.
682			Chapter 13: Printing kernel messages
684	Kernel developers like to be seen as literate. Do mind the spelling
685	of kernel messages to make a good impression. Do not use crippled
686	words like "dont"; use "do not" or "don't" instead.  Make the messages
687	concise, clear, and unambiguous.
689	Kernel messages do not have to be terminated with a period.
691	Printing numbers in parentheses (%d) adds no value and should be avoided.
693	There are a number of driver model diagnostic macros in <linux/device.h>
694	which you should use to make sure messages are matched to the right device
695	and driver, and are tagged with the right level:  dev_err(), dev_warn(),
696	dev_info(), and so forth.  For messages that aren't associated with a
697	particular device, <linux/printk.h> defines pr_notice(), pr_info(),
698	pr_warn(), pr_err(), etc.
700	Coming up with good debugging messages can be quite a challenge; and once
701	you have them, they can be a huge help for remote troubleshooting.  However
702	debug message printing is handled differently than printing other non-debug
703	messages.  While the other pr_XXX() functions print unconditionally,
704	pr_debug() does not; it is compiled out by default, unless either DEBUG is
705	defined or CONFIG_DYNAMIC_DEBUG is set.  That is true for dev_dbg() also,
706	and a related convention uses VERBOSE_DEBUG to add dev_vdbg() messages to
707	the ones already enabled by DEBUG.
709	Many subsystems have Kconfig debug options to turn on -DDEBUG in the
710	corresponding Makefile; in other cases specific files #define DEBUG.  And
711	when a debug message should be unconditionally printed, such as if it is
712	already inside a debug-related #ifdef section, printk(KERN_DEBUG ...) can be
713	used.
716			Chapter 14: Allocating memory
718	The kernel provides the following general purpose memory allocators:
719	kmalloc(), kzalloc(), kmalloc_array(), kcalloc(), vmalloc(), and
720	vzalloc().  Please refer to the API documentation for further information
721	about them.
723	The preferred form for passing a size of a struct is the following:
725		p = kmalloc(sizeof(*p), ...);
727	The alternative form where struct name is spelled out hurts readability and
728	introduces an opportunity for a bug when the pointer variable type is changed
729	but the corresponding sizeof that is passed to a memory allocator is not.
731	Casting the return value which is a void pointer is redundant. The conversion
732	from void pointer to any other pointer type is guaranteed by the C programming
733	language.
735	The preferred form for allocating an array is the following:
737		p = kmalloc_array(n, sizeof(...), ...);
739	The preferred form for allocating a zeroed array is the following:
741		p = kcalloc(n, sizeof(...), ...);
743	Both forms check for overflow on the allocation size n * sizeof(...),
744	and return NULL if that occurred.
747			Chapter 15: The inline disease
749	There appears to be a common misperception that gcc has a magic "make me
750	faster" speedup option called "inline". While the use of inlines can be
751	appropriate (for example as a means of replacing macros, see Chapter 12), it
752	very often is not. Abundant use of the inline keyword leads to a much bigger
753	kernel, which in turn slows the system as a whole down, due to a bigger
754	icache footprint for the CPU and simply because there is less memory
755	available for the pagecache. Just think about it; a pagecache miss causes a
756	disk seek, which easily takes 5 milliseconds. There are a LOT of cpu cycles
757	that can go into these 5 milliseconds.
759	A reasonable rule of thumb is to not put inline at functions that have more
760	than 3 lines of code in them. An exception to this rule are the cases where
761	a parameter is known to be a compiletime constant, and as a result of this
762	constantness you *know* the compiler will be able to optimize most of your
763	function away at compile time. For a good example of this later case, see
764	the kmalloc() inline function.
766	Often people argue that adding inline to functions that are static and used
767	only once is always a win since there is no space tradeoff. While this is
768	technically correct, gcc is capable of inlining these automatically without
769	help, and the maintenance issue of removing the inline when a second user
770	appears outweighs the potential value of the hint that tells gcc to do
771	something it would have done anyway.
774			Chapter 16: Function return values and names
776	Functions can return values of many different kinds, and one of the
777	most common is a value indicating whether the function succeeded or
778	failed.  Such a value can be represented as an error-code integer
779	(-Exxx = failure, 0 = success) or a "succeeded" boolean (0 = failure,
780	non-zero = success).
782	Mixing up these two sorts of representations is a fertile source of
783	difficult-to-find bugs.  If the C language included a strong distinction
784	between integers and booleans then the compiler would find these mistakes
785	for us... but it doesn't.  To help prevent such bugs, always follow this
786	convention:
788		If the name of a function is an action or an imperative command,
789		the function should return an error-code integer.  If the name
790		is a predicate, the function should return a "succeeded" boolean.
792	For example, "add work" is a command, and the add_work() function returns 0
793	for success or -EBUSY for failure.  In the same way, "PCI device present" is
794	a predicate, and the pci_dev_present() function returns 1 if it succeeds in
795	finding a matching device or 0 if it doesn't.
797	All EXPORTed functions must respect this convention, and so should all
798	public functions.  Private (static) functions need not, but it is
799	recommended that they do.
801	Functions whose return value is the actual result of a computation, rather
802	than an indication of whether the computation succeeded, are not subject to
803	this rule.  Generally they indicate failure by returning some out-of-range
804	result.  Typical examples would be functions that return pointers; they use
805	NULL or the ERR_PTR mechanism to report failure.
808			Chapter 17:  Don't re-invent the kernel macros
810	The header file include/linux/kernel.h contains a number of macros that
811	you should use, rather than explicitly coding some variant of them yourself.
812	For example, if you need to calculate the length of an array, take advantage
813	of the macro
815		#define ARRAY_SIZE(x) (sizeof(x) / sizeof((x)[0]))
817	Similarly, if you need to calculate the size of some structure member, use
819		#define FIELD_SIZEOF(t, f) (sizeof(((t*)0)->f))
821	There are also min() and max() macros that do strict type checking if you
822	need them.  Feel free to peruse that header file to see what else is already
823	defined that you shouldn't reproduce in your code.
826			Chapter 18:  Editor modelines and other cruft
828	Some editors can interpret configuration information embedded in source files,
829	indicated with special markers.  For example, emacs interprets lines marked
830	like this:
832		-*- mode: c -*-
834	Or like this:
836		/*
837		Local Variables:
838		compile-command: "gcc -DMAGIC_DEBUG_FLAG foo.c"
839		End:
840		*/
842	Vim interprets markers that look like this:
844		/* vim:set sw=8 noet */
846	Do not include any of these in source files.  People have their own personal
847	editor configurations, and your source files should not override them.  This
848	includes markers for indentation and mode configuration.  People may use their
849	own custom mode, or may have some other magic method for making indentation
850	work correctly.
853			Chapter 19:  Inline assembly
855	In architecture-specific code, you may need to use inline assembly to interface
856	with CPU or platform functionality.  Don't hesitate to do so when necessary.
857	However, don't use inline assembly gratuitously when C can do the job.  You can
858	and should poke hardware from C when possible.
860	Consider writing simple helper functions that wrap common bits of inline
861	assembly, rather than repeatedly writing them with slight variations.  Remember
862	that inline assembly can use C parameters.
864	Large, non-trivial assembly functions should go in .S files, with corresponding
865	C prototypes defined in C header files.  The C prototypes for assembly
866	functions should use "asmlinkage".
868	You may need to mark your asm statement as volatile, to prevent GCC from
869	removing it if GCC doesn't notice any side effects.  You don't always need to
870	do so, though, and doing so unnecessarily can limit optimization.
872	When writing a single inline assembly statement containing multiple
873	instructions, put each instruction on a separate line in a separate quoted
874	string, and end each string except the last with \n\t to properly indent the
875	next instruction in the assembly output:
877		asm ("magic %reg1, #42\n\t"
878		     "more_magic %reg2, %reg3"
879		     : /* outputs */ : /* inputs */ : /* clobbers */);
882			Chapter 20: Conditional Compilation
884	Wherever possible, don't use preprocessor conditionals (#if, #ifdef) in .c
885	files; doing so makes code harder to read and logic harder to follow.  Instead,
886	use such conditionals in a header file defining functions for use in those .c
887	files, providing no-op stub versions in the #else case, and then call those
888	functions unconditionally from .c files.  The compiler will avoid generating
889	any code for the stub calls, producing identical results, but the logic will
890	remain easy to follow.
892	Prefer to compile out entire functions, rather than portions of functions or
893	portions of expressions.  Rather than putting an ifdef in an expression, factor
894	out part or all of the expression into a separate helper function and apply the
895	conditional to that function.
897	If you have a function or variable which may potentially go unused in a
898	particular configuration, and the compiler would warn about its definition
899	going unused, mark the definition as __maybe_unused rather than wrapping it in
900	a preprocessor conditional.  (However, if a function or variable *always* goes
901	unused, delete it.)
903	Within code, where possible, use the IS_ENABLED macro to convert a Kconfig
904	symbol into a C boolean expression, and use it in a normal C conditional:
907			...
908		}
910	The compiler will constant-fold the conditional away, and include or exclude
911	the block of code just as with an #ifdef, so this will not add any runtime
912	overhead.  However, this approach still allows the C compiler to see the code
913	inside the block, and check it for correctness (syntax, types, symbol
914	references, etc).  Thus, you still have to use an #ifdef if the code inside the
915	block references symbols that will not exist if the condition is not met.
917	At the end of any non-trivial #if or #ifdef block (more than a few lines),
918	place a comment after the #endif on the same line, noting the conditional
919	expression used.  For instance:
922		...
923		#endif /* CONFIG_SOMETHING */
926			Appendix I: References
928	The C Programming Language, Second Edition
929	by Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie.
930	Prentice Hall, Inc., 1988.
931	ISBN 0-13-110362-8 (paperback), 0-13-110370-9 (hardback).
933	The Practice of Programming
934	by Brian W. Kernighan and Rob Pike.
935	Addison-Wesley, Inc., 1999.
936	ISBN 0-201-61586-X.
938	GNU manuals - where in compliance with K&R and this text - for cpp, gcc,
939	gcc internals and indent, all available from http://www.gnu.org/manual/
941	WG14 is the international standardization working group for the programming
942	language C, URL: http://www.open-std.org/JTC1/SC22/WG14/
944	Kernel CodingStyle, by greg@kroah.com at OLS 2002:
945	http://www.kroah.com/linux/talks/ols_2002_kernel_codingstyle_talk/html/
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