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Documentation / filesystems / qnx6.txt

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Based on kernel version 4.16.1. Page generated on 2018-04-09 11:53 EST.

1	The QNX6 Filesystem
2	===================
4	The qnx6fs is used by newer QNX operating system versions. (e.g. Neutrino)
5	It got introduced in QNX 6.4.0 and is used default since 6.4.1.
7	Option
8	======
10	mmi_fs		Mount filesystem as used for example by Audi MMI 3G system
12	Specification
13	=============
15	qnx6fs shares many properties with traditional Unix filesystems. It has the
16	concepts of blocks, inodes and directories.
17	On QNX it is possible to create little endian and big endian qnx6 filesystems.
18	This feature makes it possible to create and use a different endianness fs
19	for the target (QNX is used on quite a range of embedded systems) platform
20	running on a different endianness.
21	The Linux driver handles endianness transparently. (LE and BE)
23	Blocks
24	------
26	The space in the device or file is split up into blocks. These are a fixed
27	size of 512, 1024, 2048 or 4096, which is decided when the filesystem is
28	created.
29	Blockpointers are 32bit, so the maximum space that can be addressed is
30	2^32 * 4096 bytes or 16TB
32	The superblocks
33	---------------
35	The superblock contains all global information about the filesystem.
36	Each qnx6fs got two superblocks, each one having a 64bit serial number.
37	That serial number is used to identify the "active" superblock.
38	In write mode with reach new snapshot (after each synchronous write), the
39	serial of the new master superblock is increased (old superblock serial + 1)
41	So basically the snapshot functionality is realized by an atomic final
42	update of the serial number. Before updating that serial, all modifications
43	are done by copying all modified blocks during that specific write request
44	(or period) and building up a new (stable) filesystem structure under the
45	inactive superblock.
47	Each superblock holds a set of root inodes for the different filesystem
48	parts. (Inode, Bitmap and Longfilenames)
49	Each of these root nodes holds information like total size of the stored
50	data and the addressing levels in that specific tree.
51	If the level value is 0, up to 16 direct blocks can be addressed by each
52	node.
53	Level 1 adds an additional indirect addressing level where each indirect
54	addressing block holds up to blocksize / 4 bytes pointers to data blocks.
55	Level 2 adds an additional indirect addressing block level (so, already up
56	to 16 * 256 * 256 = 1048576 blocks that can be addressed by such a tree).
58	Unused block pointers are always set to ~0 - regardless of root node,
59	indirect addressing blocks or inodes.
60	Data leaves are always on the lowest level. So no data is stored on upper
61	tree levels.
63	The first Superblock is located at 0x2000. (0x2000 is the bootblock size)
64	The Audi MMI 3G first superblock directly starts at byte 0.
65	Second superblock position can either be calculated from the superblock
66	information (total number of filesystem blocks) or by taking the highest
67	device address, zeroing the last 3 bytes and then subtracting 0x1000 from
68	that address.
70	0x1000 is the size reserved for each superblock - regardless of the
71	blocksize of the filesystem.
73	Inodes
74	------
76	Each object in the filesystem is represented by an inode. (index node)
77	The inode structure contains pointers to the filesystem blocks which contain
78	the data held in the object and all of the metadata about an object except
79	its longname. (filenames longer than 27 characters)
80	The metadata about an object includes the permissions, owner, group, flags,
81	size, number of blocks used, access time, change time and modification time.
83	Object mode field is POSIX format. (which makes things easier)
85	There are also pointers to the first 16 blocks, if the object data can be
86	addressed with 16 direct blocks.
87	For more than 16 blocks an indirect addressing in form of another tree is
88	used. (scheme is the same as the one used for the superblock root nodes)
90	The filesize is stored 64bit. Inode counting starts with 1. (whilst long
91	filename inodes start with 0)
93	Directories
94	-----------
96	A directory is a filesystem object and has an inode just like a file.
97	It is a specially formatted file containing records which associate each
98	name with an inode number.
99	'.' inode number points to the directory inode
100	'..' inode number points to the parent directory inode
101	Eeach filename record additionally got a filename length field.
103	One special case are long filenames or subdirectory names.
104	These got set a filename length field of 0xff in the corresponding directory
105	record plus the longfile inode number also stored in that record.
106	With that longfilename inode number, the longfilename tree can be walked
107	starting with the superblock longfilename root node pointers.
109	Special files
110	-------------
112	Symbolic links are also filesystem objects with inodes. They got a specific
113	bit in the inode mode field identifying them as symbolic link.
114	The directory entry file inode pointer points to the target file inode.
116	Hard links got an inode, a directory entry, but a specific mode bit set,
117	no block pointers and the directory file record pointing to the target file
118	inode.
120	Character and block special devices do not exist in QNX as those files
121	are handled by the QNX kernel/drivers and created in /dev independent of the
122	underlaying filesystem.
124	Long filenames
125	--------------
127	Long filenames are stored in a separate addressing tree. The staring point
128	is the longfilename root node in the active superblock.
129	Each data block (tree leaves) holds one long filename. That filename is
130	limited to 510 bytes. The first two starting bytes are used as length field
131	for the actual filename.
132	If that structure shall fit for all allowed blocksizes, it is clear why there
133	is a limit of 510 bytes for the actual filename stored.
135	Bitmap
136	------
138	The qnx6fs filesystem allocation bitmap is stored in a tree under bitmap
139	root node in the superblock and each bit in the bitmap represents one
140	filesystem block.
141	The first block is block 0, which starts 0x1000 after superblock start.
142	So for a normal qnx6fs 0x3000 (bootblock + superblock) is the physical
143	address at which block 0 is located.
145	Bits at the end of the last bitmap block are set to 1, if the device is
146	smaller than addressing space in the bitmap.
148	Bitmap system area
149	------------------
151	The bitmap itself is divided into three parts.
152	First the system area, that is split into two halves.
153	Then userspace.
155	The requirement for a static, fixed preallocated system area comes from how
156	qnx6fs deals with writes.
157	Each superblock got it's own half of the system area. So superblock #1
158	always uses blocks from the lower half whilst superblock #2 just writes to
159	blocks represented by the upper half bitmap system area bits.
161	Bitmap blocks, Inode blocks and indirect addressing blocks for those two
162	tree structures are treated as system blocks.
164	The rational behind that is that a write request can work on a new snapshot
165	(system area of the inactive - resp. lower serial numbered superblock) while
166	at the same time there is still a complete stable filesystem structer in the
167	other half of the system area.
169	When finished with writing (a sync write is completed, the maximum sync leap
170	time or a filesystem sync is requested), serial of the previously inactive
171	superblock atomically is increased and the fs switches over to that - then
172	stable declared - superblock.
174	For all data outside the system area, blocks are just copied while writing.
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