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Documentation / device-mapper / thin-provisioning.txt

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Based on kernel version 3.13. Page generated on 2014-01-20 22:00 EST.

1	Introduction
2	============
4	This document describes a collection of device-mapper targets that
5	between them implement thin-provisioning and snapshots.
7	The main highlight of this implementation, compared to the previous
8	implementation of snapshots, is that it allows many virtual devices to
9	be stored on the same data volume.  This simplifies administration and
10	allows the sharing of data between volumes, thus reducing disk usage.
12	Another significant feature is support for an arbitrary depth of
13	recursive snapshots (snapshots of snapshots of snapshots ...).  The
14	previous implementation of snapshots did this by chaining together
15	lookup tables, and so performance was O(depth).  This new
16	implementation uses a single data structure to avoid this degradation
17	with depth.  Fragmentation may still be an issue, however, in some
18	scenarios.
20	Metadata is stored on a separate device from data, giving the
21	administrator some freedom, for example to:
23	- Improve metadata resilience by storing metadata on a mirrored volume
24	  but data on a non-mirrored one.
26	- Improve performance by storing the metadata on SSD.
28	Status
29	======
31	These targets are very much still in the EXPERIMENTAL state.  Please
32	do not yet rely on them in production.  But do experiment and offer us
33	feedback.  Different use cases will have different performance
34	characteristics, for example due to fragmentation of the data volume.
36	If you find this software is not performing as expected please mail
37	dm-devel@redhat.com with details and we'll try our best to improve
38	things for you.
40	Userspace tools for checking and repairing the metadata are under
41	development.
43	Cookbook
44	========
46	This section describes some quick recipes for using thin provisioning.
47	They use the dmsetup program to control the device-mapper driver
48	directly.  End users will be advised to use a higher-level volume
49	manager such as LVM2 once support has been added.
51	Pool device
52	-----------
54	The pool device ties together the metadata volume and the data volume.
55	It maps I/O linearly to the data volume and updates the metadata via
56	two mechanisms:
58	- Function calls from the thin targets
60	- Device-mapper 'messages' from userspace which control the creation of new
61	  virtual devices amongst other things.
63	Setting up a fresh pool device
64	------------------------------
66	Setting up a pool device requires a valid metadata device, and a
67	data device.  If you do not have an existing metadata device you can
68	make one by zeroing the first 4k to indicate empty metadata.
70	    dd if=/dev/zero of=$metadata_dev bs=4096 count=1
72	The amount of metadata you need will vary according to how many blocks
73	are shared between thin devices (i.e. through snapshots).  If you have
74	less sharing than average you'll need a larger-than-average metadata device.
76	As a guide, we suggest you calculate the number of bytes to use in the
77	metadata device as 48 * $data_dev_size / $data_block_size but round it up
78	to 2MB if the answer is smaller.  If you're creating large numbers of
79	snapshots which are recording large amounts of change, you may find you
80	need to increase this.
82	The largest size supported is 16GB: If the device is larger,
83	a warning will be issued and the excess space will not be used.
85	Reloading a pool table
86	----------------------
88	You may reload a pool's table, indeed this is how the pool is resized
89	if it runs out of space.  (N.B. While specifying a different metadata
90	device when reloading is not forbidden at the moment, things will go
91	wrong if it does not route I/O to exactly the same on-disk location as
92	previously.)
94	Using an existing pool device
95	-----------------------------
97	    dmsetup create pool \
98		--table "0 20971520 thin-pool $metadata_dev $data_dev \
99			 $data_block_size $low_water_mark"
101	$data_block_size gives the smallest unit of disk space that can be
102	allocated at a time expressed in units of 512-byte sectors.
103	$data_block_size must be between 128 (64KB) and 2097152 (1GB) and a
104	multiple of 128 (64KB).  $data_block_size cannot be changed after the
105	thin-pool is created.  People primarily interested in thin provisioning
106	may want to use a value such as 1024 (512KB).  People doing lots of
107	snapshotting may want a smaller value such as 128 (64KB).  If you are
108	not zeroing newly-allocated data, a larger $data_block_size in the
109	region of 256000 (128MB) is suggested.
111	$low_water_mark is expressed in blocks of size $data_block_size.  If
112	free space on the data device drops below this level then a dm event
113	will be triggered which a userspace daemon should catch allowing it to
114	extend the pool device.  Only one such event will be sent.
115	Resuming a device with a new table itself triggers an event so the
116	userspace daemon can use this to detect a situation where a new table
117	already exceeds the threshold.
119	Thin provisioning
120	-----------------
122	i) Creating a new thinly-provisioned volume.
124	  To create a new thinly- provisioned volume you must send a message to an
125	  active pool device, /dev/mapper/pool in this example.
127	    dmsetup message /dev/mapper/pool 0 "create_thin 0"
129	  Here '0' is an identifier for the volume, a 24-bit number.  It's up
130	  to the caller to allocate and manage these identifiers.  If the
131	  identifier is already in use, the message will fail with -EEXIST.
133	ii) Using a thinly-provisioned volume.
135	  Thinly-provisioned volumes are activated using the 'thin' target:
137	    dmsetup create thin --table "0 2097152 thin /dev/mapper/pool 0"
139	  The last parameter is the identifier for the thinp device.
141	Internal snapshots
142	------------------
144	i) Creating an internal snapshot.
146	  Snapshots are created with another message to the pool.
148	  N.B.  If the origin device that you wish to snapshot is active, you
149	  must suspend it before creating the snapshot to avoid corruption.
150	  This is NOT enforced at the moment, so please be careful!
152	    dmsetup suspend /dev/mapper/thin
153	    dmsetup message /dev/mapper/pool 0 "create_snap 1 0"
154	    dmsetup resume /dev/mapper/thin
156	  Here '1' is the identifier for the volume, a 24-bit number.  '0' is the
157	  identifier for the origin device.
159	ii) Using an internal snapshot.
161	  Once created, the user doesn't have to worry about any connection
162	  between the origin and the snapshot.  Indeed the snapshot is no
163	  different from any other thinly-provisioned device and can be
164	  snapshotted itself via the same method.  It's perfectly legal to
165	  have only one of them active, and there's no ordering requirement on
166	  activating or removing them both.  (This differs from conventional
167	  device-mapper snapshots.)
169	  Activate it exactly the same way as any other thinly-provisioned volume:
171	    dmsetup create snap --table "0 2097152 thin /dev/mapper/pool 1"
173	External snapshots
174	------------------
176	You can use an external _read only_ device as an origin for a
177	thinly-provisioned volume.  Any read to an unprovisioned area of the
178	thin device will be passed through to the origin.  Writes trigger
179	the allocation of new blocks as usual.
181	One use case for this is VM hosts that want to run guests on
182	thinly-provisioned volumes but have the base image on another device
183	(possibly shared between many VMs).
185	You must not write to the origin device if you use this technique!
186	Of course, you may write to the thin device and take internal snapshots
187	of the thin volume.
189	i) Creating a snapshot of an external device
191	  This is the same as creating a thin device.
192	  You don't mention the origin at this stage.
194	    dmsetup message /dev/mapper/pool 0 "create_thin 0"
196	ii) Using a snapshot of an external device.
198	  Append an extra parameter to the thin target specifying the origin:
200	    dmsetup create snap --table "0 2097152 thin /dev/mapper/pool 0 /dev/image"
202	  N.B. All descendants (internal snapshots) of this snapshot require the
203	  same extra origin parameter.
205	Deactivation
206	------------
208	All devices using a pool must be deactivated before the pool itself
209	can be.
211	    dmsetup remove thin
212	    dmsetup remove snap
213	    dmsetup remove pool
215	Reference
216	=========
218	'thin-pool' target
219	------------------
221	i) Constructor
223	    thin-pool <metadata dev> <data dev> <data block size (sectors)> \
224		      <low water mark (blocks)> [<number of feature args> [<arg>]*]
226	    Optional feature arguments:
228	      skip_block_zeroing: Skip the zeroing of newly-provisioned blocks.
230	      ignore_discard: Disable discard support.
232	      no_discard_passdown: Don't pass discards down to the underlying
233				   data device, but just remove the mapping.
235	      read_only: Don't allow any changes to be made to the pool
236			 metadata.
238	    Data block size must be between 64KB (128 sectors) and 1GB
239	    (2097152 sectors) inclusive.
242	ii) Status
244	    <transaction id> <used metadata blocks>/<total metadata blocks>
245	    <used data blocks>/<total data blocks> <held metadata root>
246	    [no_]discard_passdown ro|rw
248	    transaction id:
249		A 64-bit number used by userspace to help synchronise with metadata
250		from volume managers.
252	    used data blocks / total data blocks
253		If the number of free blocks drops below the pool's low water mark a
254		dm event will be sent to userspace.  This event is edge-triggered and
255		it will occur only once after each resume so volume manager writers
256		should register for the event and then check the target's status.
258	    held metadata root:
259		The location, in sectors, of the metadata root that has been
260		'held' for userspace read access.  '-' indicates there is no
261		held root.  This feature is not yet implemented so '-' is
262		always returned.
264	    discard_passdown|no_discard_passdown
265		Whether or not discards are actually being passed down to the
266		underlying device.  When this is enabled when loading the table,
267		it can get disabled if the underlying device doesn't support it.
269	    ro|rw
270		If the pool encounters certain types of device failures it will
271		drop into a read-only metadata mode in which no changes to
272		the pool metadata (like allocating new blocks) are permitted.
274		In serious cases where even a read-only mode is deemed unsafe
275		no further I/O will be permitted and the status will just
276		contain the string 'Fail'.  The userspace recovery tools
277		should then be used.
279	iii) Messages
281	    create_thin <dev id>
283		Create a new thinly-provisioned device.
284		<dev id> is an arbitrary unique 24-bit identifier chosen by
285		the caller.
287	    create_snap <dev id> <origin id>
289		Create a new snapshot of another thinly-provisioned device.
290		<dev id> is an arbitrary unique 24-bit identifier chosen by
291		the caller.
292		<origin id> is the identifier of the thinly-provisioned device
293		of which the new device will be a snapshot.
295	    delete <dev id>
297		Deletes a thin device.  Irreversible.
299	    set_transaction_id <current id> <new id>
301		Userland volume managers, such as LVM, need a way to
302		synchronise their external metadata with the internal metadata of the
303		pool target.  The thin-pool target offers to store an
304		arbitrary 64-bit transaction id and return it on the target's
305		status line.  To avoid races you must provide what you think
306		the current transaction id is when you change it with this
307		compare-and-swap message.
309	    reserve_metadata_snap
311	        Reserve a copy of the data mapping btree for use by userland.
312	        This allows userland to inspect the mappings as they were when
313	        this message was executed.  Use the pool's status command to
314	        get the root block associated with the metadata snapshot.
316	    release_metadata_snap
318	        Release a previously reserved copy of the data mapping btree.
320	'thin' target
321	-------------
323	i) Constructor
325	    thin <pool dev> <dev id> [<external origin dev>]
327	    pool dev:
328		the thin-pool device, e.g. /dev/mapper/my_pool or 253:0
330	    dev id:
331		the internal device identifier of the device to be
332		activated.
334	    external origin dev:
335		an optional block device outside the pool to be treated as a
336		read-only snapshot origin: reads to unprovisioned areas of the
337		thin target will be mapped to this device.
339	The pool doesn't store any size against the thin devices.  If you
340	load a thin target that is smaller than you've been using previously,
341	then you'll have no access to blocks mapped beyond the end.  If you
342	load a target that is bigger than before, then extra blocks will be
343	provisioned as and when needed.
345	If you wish to reduce the size of your thin device and potentially
346	regain some space then send the 'trim' message to the pool.
348	ii) Status
350	     <nr mapped sectors> <highest mapped sector>
352		If the pool has encountered device errors and failed, the status
353		will just contain the string 'Fail'.  The userspace recovery
354		tools should then be used.
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