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Based on kernel version 3.15.4. Page generated on 2014-07-07 09:03 EST.

1	The Linux NTFS filesystem driver
2	================================
3	
4	
5	Table of contents
6	=================
7	
8	- Overview
9	- Web site
10	- Features
11	- Supported mount options
12	- Known bugs and (mis-)features
13	- Using NTFS volume and stripe sets
14	  - The Device-Mapper driver
15	  - The Software RAID / MD driver
16	  - Limitations when using the MD driver
17	- ChangeLog
18	
19	
20	Overview
21	========
22	
23	Linux-NTFS comes with a number of user-space programs known as ntfsprogs.
24	These include mkntfs, a full-featured ntfs filesystem format utility,
25	ntfsundelete used for recovering files that were unintentionally deleted
26	from an NTFS volume and ntfsresize which is used to resize an NTFS partition.
27	See the web site for more information.
28	
29	To mount an NTFS 1.2/3.x (Windows NT4/2000/XP/2003) volume, use the file
30	system type 'ntfs'.  The driver currently supports read-only mode (with no
31	fault-tolerance, encryption or journalling) and very limited, but safe, write
32	support.
33	
34	For fault tolerance and raid support (i.e. volume and stripe sets), you can
35	use the kernel's Software RAID / MD driver.  See section "Using Software RAID
36	with NTFS" for details.
37	
38	
39	Web site
40	========
41	
42	There is plenty of additional information on the linux-ntfs web site
43	at http://www.linux-ntfs.org/
44	
45	The web site has a lot of additional information, such as a comprehensive
46	FAQ, documentation on the NTFS on-disk format, information on the Linux-NTFS
47	userspace utilities, etc.
48	
49	
50	Features
51	========
52	
53	- This is a complete rewrite of the NTFS driver that used to be in the 2.4 and
54	  earlier kernels.  This new driver implements NTFS read support and is
55	  functionally equivalent to the old ntfs driver and it also implements limited
56	  write support.  The biggest limitation at present is that files/directories
57	  cannot be created or deleted.  See below for the list of write features that
58	  are so far supported.  Another limitation is that writing to compressed files
59	  is not implemented at all.  Also, neither read nor write access to encrypted
60	  files is so far implemented.
61	- The new driver has full support for sparse files on NTFS 3.x volumes which
62	  the old driver isn't happy with.
63	- The new driver supports execution of binaries due to mmap() now being
64	  supported.
65	- The new driver supports loopback mounting of files on NTFS which is used by
66	  some Linux distributions to enable the user to run Linux from an NTFS
67	  partition by creating a large file while in Windows and then loopback
68	  mounting the file while in Linux and creating a Linux filesystem on it that
69	  is used to install Linux on it.
70	- A comparison of the two drivers using:
71		time find . -type f -exec md5sum "{}" \;
72	  run three times in sequence with each driver (after a reboot) on a 1.4GiB
73	  NTFS partition, showed the new driver to be 20% faster in total time elapsed
74	  (from 9:43 minutes on average down to 7:53).  The time spent in user space
75	  was unchanged but the time spent in the kernel was decreased by a factor of
76	  2.5 (from 85 CPU seconds down to 33).
77	- The driver does not support short file names in general.  For backwards
78	  compatibility, we implement access to files using their short file names if
79	  they exist.  The driver will not create short file names however, and a
80	  rename will discard any existing short file name.
81	- The new driver supports exporting of mounted NTFS volumes via NFS.
82	- The new driver supports async io (aio).
83	- The new driver supports fsync(2), fdatasync(2), and msync(2).
84	- The new driver supports readv(2) and writev(2).
85	- The new driver supports access time updates (including mtime and ctime).
86	- The new driver supports truncate(2) and open(2) with O_TRUNC.  But at present
87	  only very limited support for highly fragmented files, i.e. ones which have
88	  their data attribute split across multiple extents, is included.  Another
89	  limitation is that at present truncate(2) will never create sparse files,
90	  since to mark a file sparse we need to modify the directory entry for the
91	  file and we do not implement directory modifications yet.
92	- The new driver supports write(2) which can both overwrite existing data and
93	  extend the file size so that you can write beyond the existing data.  Also,
94	  writing into sparse regions is supported and the holes are filled in with
95	  clusters.  But at present only limited support for highly fragmented files,
96	  i.e. ones which have their data attribute split across multiple extents, is
97	  included.  Another limitation is that write(2) will never create sparse
98	  files, since to mark a file sparse we need to modify the directory entry for
99	  the file and we do not implement directory modifications yet.
100	
101	Supported mount options
102	=======================
103	
104	In addition to the generic mount options described by the manual page for the
105	mount command (man 8 mount, also see man 5 fstab), the NTFS driver supports the
106	following mount options:
107	
108	iocharset=name		Deprecated option.  Still supported but please use
109				nls=name in the future.  See description for nls=name.
110	
111	nls=name		Character set to use when returning file names.
112				Unlike VFAT, NTFS suppresses names that contain
113				unconvertible characters.  Note that most character
114				sets contain insufficient characters to represent all
115				possible Unicode characters that can exist on NTFS.
116				To be sure you are not missing any files, you are
117				advised to use nls=utf8 which is capable of
118				representing all Unicode characters.
119	
120	utf8=<bool>		Option no longer supported.  Currently mapped to
121				nls=utf8 but please use nls=utf8 in the future and
122				make sure utf8 is compiled either as module or into
123				the kernel.  See description for nls=name.
124	
125	uid=
126	gid=
127	umask=			Provide default owner, group, and access mode mask.
128				These options work as documented in mount(8).  By
129				default, the files/directories are owned by root and
130				he/she has read and write permissions, as well as
131				browse permission for directories.  No one else has any
132				access permissions.  I.e. the mode on all files is by
133				default rw------- and for directories rwx------, a
134				consequence of the default fmask=0177 and dmask=0077.
135				Using a umask of zero will grant all permissions to
136				everyone, i.e. all files and directories will have mode
137				rwxrwxrwx.
138	
139	fmask=
140	dmask=			Instead of specifying umask which applies both to
141				files and directories, fmask applies only to files and
142				dmask only to directories.
143	
144	sloppy=<BOOL>		If sloppy is specified, ignore unknown mount options.
145				Otherwise the default behaviour is to abort mount if
146				any unknown options are found.
147	
148	show_sys_files=<BOOL>	If show_sys_files is specified, show the system files
149				in directory listings.  Otherwise the default behaviour
150				is to hide the system files.
151				Note that even when show_sys_files is specified, "$MFT"
152				will not be visible due to bugs/mis-features in glibc.
153				Further, note that irrespective of show_sys_files, all
154				files are accessible by name, i.e. you can always do
155				"ls -l \$UpCase" for example to specifically show the
156				system file containing the Unicode upcase table.
157	
158	case_sensitive=<BOOL>	If case_sensitive is specified, treat all file names as
159				case sensitive and create file names in the POSIX
160				namespace.  Otherwise the default behaviour is to treat
161				file names as case insensitive and to create file names
162				in the WIN32/LONG name space.  Note, the Linux NTFS
163				driver will never create short file names and will
164				remove them on rename/delete of the corresponding long
165				file name.
166				Note that files remain accessible via their short file
167				name, if it exists.  If case_sensitive, you will need
168				to provide the correct case of the short file name.
169	
170	disable_sparse=<BOOL>	If disable_sparse is specified, creation of sparse
171				regions, i.e. holes, inside files is disabled for the
172				volume (for the duration of this mount only).  By
173				default, creation of sparse regions is enabled, which
174				is consistent with the behaviour of traditional Unix
175				filesystems.
176	
177	errors=opt		What to do when critical filesystem errors are found.
178				Following values can be used for "opt":
179				  continue: DEFAULT, try to clean-up as much as
180					    possible, e.g. marking a corrupt inode as
181					    bad so it is no longer accessed, and then
182					    continue.
183				  recover:  At present only supported is recovery of
184					    the boot sector from the backup copy.
185					    If read-only mount, the recovery is done
186					    in memory only and not written to disk.
187				Note that the options are additive, i.e. specifying:
188				   errors=continue,errors=recover
189				means the driver will attempt to recover and if that
190				fails it will clean-up as much as possible and
191				continue.
192	
193	mft_zone_multiplier=	Set the MFT zone multiplier for the volume (this
194				setting is not persistent across mounts and can be
195				changed from mount to mount but cannot be changed on
196				remount).  Values of 1 to 4 are allowed, 1 being the
197				default.  The MFT zone multiplier determines how much
198				space is reserved for the MFT on the volume.  If all
199				other space is used up, then the MFT zone will be
200				shrunk dynamically, so this has no impact on the
201				amount of free space.  However, it can have an impact
202				on performance by affecting fragmentation of the MFT.
203				In general use the default.  If you have a lot of small
204				files then use a higher value.  The values have the
205				following meaning:
206				      Value	     MFT zone size (% of volume size)
207					1		12.5%
208					2		25%
209					3		37.5%
210					4		50%
211				Note this option is irrelevant for read-only mounts.
212	
213	
214	Known bugs and (mis-)features
215	=============================
216	
217	- The link count on each directory inode entry is set to 1, due to Linux not
218	  supporting directory hard links.  This may well confuse some user space
219	  applications, since the directory names will have the same inode numbers.
220	  This also speeds up ntfs_read_inode() immensely.  And we haven't found any
221	  problems with this approach so far.  If you find a problem with this, please
222	  let us know.
223	
224	
225	Please send bug reports/comments/feedback/abuse to the Linux-NTFS development
226	list at sourceforge: linux-ntfs-dev@lists.sourceforge.net
227	
228	
229	Using NTFS volume and stripe sets
230	=================================
231	
232	For support of volume and stripe sets, you can either use the kernel's
233	Device-Mapper driver or the kernel's Software RAID / MD driver.  The former is
234	the recommended one to use for linear raid.  But the latter is required for
235	raid level 5.  For striping and mirroring, either driver should work fine.
236	
237	
238	The Device-Mapper driver
239	------------------------
240	
241	You will need to create a table of the components of the volume/stripe set and
242	how they fit together and load this into the kernel using the dmsetup utility
243	(see man 8 dmsetup).
244	
245	Linear volume sets, i.e. linear raid, has been tested and works fine.  Even
246	though untested, there is no reason why stripe sets, i.e. raid level 0, and
247	mirrors, i.e. raid level 1 should not work, too.  Stripes with parity, i.e.
248	raid level 5, unfortunately cannot work yet because the current version of the
249	Device-Mapper driver does not support raid level 5.  You may be able to use the
250	Software RAID / MD driver for raid level 5, see the next section for details.
251	
252	To create the table describing your volume you will need to know each of its
253	components and their sizes in sectors, i.e. multiples of 512-byte blocks.
254	
255	For NT4 fault tolerant volumes you can obtain the sizes using fdisk.  So for
256	example if one of your partitions is /dev/hda2 you would do:
257	
258	$ fdisk -ul /dev/hda
259	
260	Disk /dev/hda: 81.9 GB, 81964302336 bytes
261	255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9964 cylinders, total 160086528 sectors
262	Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
263	
264	   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
265	   /dev/hda1   *          63     4209029     2104483+  83  Linux
266	   /dev/hda2         4209030    37768814    16779892+  86  NTFS
267	   /dev/hda3        37768815    46170809     4200997+  83  Linux
268	
269	And you would know that /dev/hda2 has a size of 37768814 - 4209030 + 1 =
270	33559785 sectors.
271	
272	For Win2k and later dynamic disks, you can for example use the ldminfo utility
273	which is part of the Linux LDM tools (the latest version at the time of
274	writing is linux-ldm-0.0.8.tar.bz2).  You can download it from:
275		http://www.linux-ntfs.org/
276	Simply extract the downloaded archive (tar xvjf linux-ldm-0.0.8.tar.bz2), go
277	into it (cd linux-ldm-0.0.8) and change to the test directory (cd test).  You
278	will find the precompiled (i386) ldminfo utility there.  NOTE: You will not be
279	able to compile this yourself easily so use the binary version!
280	
281	Then you would use ldminfo in dump mode to obtain the necessary information:
282	
283	$ ./ldminfo --dump /dev/hda
284	
285	This would dump the LDM database found on /dev/hda which describes all of your
286	dynamic disks and all the volumes on them.  At the bottom you will see the
287	VOLUME DEFINITIONS section which is all you really need.  You may need to look
288	further above to determine which of the disks in the volume definitions is
289	which device in Linux.  Hint: Run ldminfo on each of your dynamic disks and
290	look at the Disk Id close to the top of the output for each (the PRIVATE HEADER
291	section).  You can then find these Disk Ids in the VBLK DATABASE section in the
292	<Disk> components where you will get the LDM Name for the disk that is found in
293	the VOLUME DEFINITIONS section.
294	
295	Note you will also need to enable the LDM driver in the Linux kernel.  If your
296	distribution did not enable it, you will need to recompile the kernel with it
297	enabled.  This will create the LDM partitions on each device at boot time.  You
298	would then use those devices (for /dev/hda they would be /dev/hda1, 2, 3, etc)
299	in the Device-Mapper table.
300	
301	You can also bypass using the LDM driver by using the main device (e.g.
302	/dev/hda) and then using the offsets of the LDM partitions into this device as
303	the "Start sector of device" when creating the table.  Once again ldminfo would
304	give you the correct information to do this.
305	
306	Assuming you know all your devices and their sizes things are easy.
307	
308	For a linear raid the table would look like this (note all values are in
309	512-byte sectors):
310	
311	--- cut here ---
312	# Offset into	Size of this	Raid type	Device		Start sector
313	# volume	device						of device
314	0		1028161		linear		/dev/hda1	0
315	1028161		3903762		linear		/dev/hdb2	0
316	4931923		2103211		linear		/dev/hdc1	0
317	--- cut here ---
318	
319	For a striped volume, i.e. raid level 0, you will need to know the chunk size
320	you used when creating the volume.  Windows uses 64kiB as the default, so it
321	will probably be this unless you changes the defaults when creating the array.
322	
323	For a raid level 0 the table would look like this (note all values are in
324	512-byte sectors):
325	
326	--- cut here ---
327	# Offset   Size	    Raid     Number   Chunk  1st        Start	2nd	  Start
328	# into     of the   type     of	      size   Device	in	Device	  in
329	# volume   volume	     stripes			device		  device
330	0	   2056320  striped  2	      128    /dev/hda1	0	/dev/hdb1 0
331	--- cut here ---
332	
333	If there are more than two devices, just add each of them to the end of the
334	line.
335	
336	Finally, for a mirrored volume, i.e. raid level 1, the table would look like
337	this (note all values are in 512-byte sectors):
338	
339	--- cut here ---
340	# Ofs Size   Raid   Log  Number Region Should Number Source  Start Target Start
341	# in  of the type   type of log size   sync?  of     Device  in    Device in
342	# vol volume		 params		     mirrors	     Device	  Device
343	0    2056320 mirror core 2	16     nosync 2	   /dev/hda1 0   /dev/hdb1 0
344	--- cut here ---
345	
346	If you are mirroring to multiple devices you can specify further targets at the
347	end of the line.
348	
349	Note the "Should sync?" parameter "nosync" means that the two mirrors are
350	already in sync which will be the case on a clean shutdown of Windows.  If the
351	mirrors are not clean, you can specify the "sync" option instead of "nosync"
352	and the Device-Mapper driver will then copy the entirety of the "Source Device"
353	to the "Target Device" or if you specified multiple target devices to all of
354	them.
355	
356	Once you have your table, save it in a file somewhere (e.g. /etc/ntfsvolume1),
357	and hand it over to dmsetup to work with, like so:
358	
359	$ dmsetup create myvolume1 /etc/ntfsvolume1
360	
361	You can obviously replace "myvolume1" with whatever name you like.
362	
363	If it all worked, you will now have the device /dev/device-mapper/myvolume1
364	which you can then just use as an argument to the mount command as usual to
365	mount the ntfs volume.  For example:
366	
367	$ mount -t ntfs -o ro /dev/device-mapper/myvolume1 /mnt/myvol1
368	
369	(You need to create the directory /mnt/myvol1 first and of course you can use
370	anything you like instead of /mnt/myvol1 as long as it is an existing
371	directory.)
372	
373	It is advisable to do the mount read-only to see if the volume has been setup
374	correctly to avoid the possibility of causing damage to the data on the ntfs
375	volume.
376	
377	
378	The Software RAID / MD driver
379	-----------------------------
380	
381	An alternative to using the Device-Mapper driver is to use the kernel's
382	Software RAID / MD driver.  For which you need to set up your /etc/raidtab
383	appropriately (see man 5 raidtab).
384	
385	Linear volume sets, i.e. linear raid, as well as stripe sets, i.e. raid level
386	0, have been tested and work fine (though see section "Limitations when using
387	the MD driver with NTFS volumes" especially if you want to use linear raid).
388	Even though untested, there is no reason why mirrors, i.e. raid level 1, and
389	stripes with parity, i.e. raid level 5, should not work, too.
390	
391	You have to use the "persistent-superblock 0" option for each raid-disk in the
392	NTFS volume/stripe you are configuring in /etc/raidtab as the persistent
393	superblock used by the MD driver would damage the NTFS volume.
394	
395	Windows by default uses a stripe chunk size of 64k, so you probably want the
396	"chunk-size 64k" option for each raid-disk, too.
397	
398	For example, if you have a stripe set consisting of two partitions /dev/hda5
399	and /dev/hdb1 your /etc/raidtab would look like this:
400	
401	raiddev /dev/md0
402		raid-level	0
403		nr-raid-disks	2
404		nr-spare-disks	0
405		persistent-superblock	0
406		chunk-size	64k
407		device		/dev/hda5
408		raid-disk	0
409		device		/dev/hdb1
410		raid-disk	1
411	
412	For linear raid, just change the raid-level above to "raid-level linear", for
413	mirrors, change it to "raid-level 1", and for stripe sets with parity, change
414	it to "raid-level 5".
415	
416	Note for stripe sets with parity you will also need to tell the MD driver
417	which parity algorithm to use by specifying the option "parity-algorithm
418	which", where you need to replace "which" with the name of the algorithm to
419	use (see man 5 raidtab for available algorithms) and you will have to try the
420	different available algorithms until you find one that works.  Make sure you
421	are working read-only when playing with this as you may damage your data
422	otherwise.  If you find which algorithm works please let us know (email the
423	linux-ntfs developers list linux-ntfs-dev@lists.sourceforge.net or drop in on
424	IRC in channel #ntfs on the irc.freenode.net network) so we can update this
425	documentation.
426	
427	Once the raidtab is setup, run for example raid0run -a to start all devices or
428	raid0run /dev/md0 to start a particular md device, in this case /dev/md0.
429	
430	Then just use the mount command as usual to mount the ntfs volume using for
431	example:	mount -t ntfs -o ro /dev/md0 /mnt/myntfsvolume
432	
433	It is advisable to do the mount read-only to see if the md volume has been
434	setup correctly to avoid the possibility of causing damage to the data on the
435	ntfs volume.
436	
437	
438	Limitations when using the Software RAID / MD driver
439	-----------------------------------------------------
440	
441	Using the md driver will not work properly if any of your NTFS partitions have
442	an odd number of sectors.  This is especially important for linear raid as all
443	data after the first partition with an odd number of sectors will be offset by
444	one or more sectors so if you mount such a partition with write support you
445	will cause massive damage to the data on the volume which will only become
446	apparent when you try to use the volume again under Windows.
447	
448	So when using linear raid, make sure that all your partitions have an even
449	number of sectors BEFORE attempting to use it.  You have been warned!
450	
451	Even better is to simply use the Device-Mapper for linear raid and then you do
452	not have this problem with odd numbers of sectors.
453	
454	
455	ChangeLog
456	=========
457	
458	2.1.30:
459		- Fix writev() (it kept writing the first segment over and over again
460		  instead of moving onto subsequent segments).
461		- Fix crash in ntfs_mft_record_alloc() when mapping the new extent mft
462		  record failed.
463	2.1.29:
464		- Fix a deadlock when mounting read-write.
465	2.1.28:
466		- Fix a deadlock.
467	2.1.27:
468		- Implement page migration support so the kernel can move memory used
469		  by NTFS files and directories around for management purposes.
470		- Add support for writing to sparse files created with Windows XP SP2.
471		- Many minor improvements and bug fixes.
472	2.1.26:
473		- Implement support for sector sizes above 512 bytes (up to the maximum
474		  supported by NTFS which is 4096 bytes).
475		- Enhance support for NTFS volumes which were supported by Windows but
476		  not by Linux due to invalid attribute list attribute flags.
477		- A few minor updates and bug fixes.
478	2.1.25:
479		- Write support is now extended with write(2) being able to both
480		  overwrite existing file data and to extend files.  Also, if a write
481		  to a sparse region occurs, write(2) will fill in the hole.  Note,
482		  mmap(2) based writes still do not support writing into holes or
483		  writing beyond the initialized size.
484		- Write support has a new feature and that is that truncate(2) and
485		  open(2) with O_TRUNC are now implemented thus files can be both made
486		  smaller and larger.
487		- Note: Both write(2) and truncate(2)/open(2) with O_TRUNC still have
488		  limitations in that they
489		  - only provide limited support for highly fragmented files.
490		  - only work on regular, i.e. uncompressed and unencrypted files.
491		  - never create sparse files although this will change once directory
492		    operations are implemented.
493		- Lots of bug fixes and enhancements across the board.
494	2.1.24:
495		- Support journals ($LogFile) which have been modified by chkdsk.  This
496		  means users can boot into Windows after we marked the volume dirty.
497		  The Windows boot will run chkdsk and then reboot.  The user can then
498		  immediately boot into Linux rather than having to do a full Windows
499		  boot first before rebooting into Linux and we will recognize such a
500		  journal and empty it as it is clean by definition.
501		- Support journals ($LogFile) with only one restart page as well as
502		  journals with two different restart pages.  We sanity check both and
503		  either use the only sane one or the more recent one of the two in the
504		  case that both are valid.
505		- Lots of bug fixes and enhancements across the board.
506	2.1.23:
507		- Stamp the user space journal, aka transaction log, aka $UsnJrnl, if
508		  it is present and active thus telling Windows and applications using
509		  the transaction log that changes can have happened on the volume
510		  which are not recorded in $UsnJrnl.
511		- Detect the case when Windows has been hibernated (suspended to disk)
512		  and if this is the case do not allow (re)mounting read-write to
513		  prevent data corruption when you boot back into the suspended
514		  Windows session.
515		- Implement extension of resident files using the normal file write
516		  code paths, i.e. most very small files can be extended to be a little
517		  bit bigger but not by much.
518		- Add new mount option "disable_sparse".  (See list of mount options
519		  above for details.)
520		- Improve handling of ntfs volumes with errors and strange boot sectors
521		  in particular.
522		- Fix various bugs including a nasty deadlock that appeared in recent
523		  kernels (around 2.6.11-2.6.12 timeframe).
524	2.1.22:
525		- Improve handling of ntfs volumes with errors.
526		- Fix various bugs and race conditions.
527	2.1.21:
528		- Fix several race conditions and various other bugs.
529		- Many internal cleanups, code reorganization, optimizations, and mft
530		  and index record writing code rewritten to fit in with the changes.
531		- Update Documentation/filesystems/ntfs.txt with instructions on how to
532		  use the Device-Mapper driver with NTFS ftdisk/LDM raid.
533	2.1.20:
534		- Fix two stupid bugs introduced in 2.1.18 release.
535	2.1.19:
536		- Minor bugfix in handling of the default upcase table.
537		- Many internal cleanups and improvements.  Many thanks to Linus
538		  Torvalds and Al Viro for the help and advice with the sparse
539		  annotations and cleanups.
540	2.1.18:
541		- Fix scheduling latencies at mount time.  (Ingo Molnar)
542		- Fix endianness bug in a little traversed portion of the attribute
543		  lookup code.
544	2.1.17:
545		- Fix bugs in mount time error code paths.
546	2.1.16:
547		- Implement access time updates (including mtime and ctime).
548		- Implement fsync(2), fdatasync(2), and msync(2) system calls.
549		- Enable the readv(2) and writev(2) system calls.
550		- Enable access via the asynchronous io (aio) API by adding support for
551		  the aio_read(3) and aio_write(3) functions.
552	2.1.15:
553		- Invalidate quotas when (re)mounting read-write.
554		  NOTE:  This now only leave user space journalling on the side.  (See
555		  note for version 2.1.13, below.)
556	2.1.14:
557		- Fix an NFSd caused deadlock reported by several users.
558	2.1.13:
559		- Implement writing of inodes (access time updates are not implemented
560		  yet so mounting with -o noatime,nodiratime is enforced).
561		- Enable writing out of resident files so you can now overwrite any
562		  uncompressed, unencrypted, nonsparse file as long as you do not
563		  change the file size.
564		- Add housekeeping of ntfs system files so that ntfsfix no longer needs
565		  to be run after writing to an NTFS volume.
566		  NOTE:  This still leaves quota tracking and user space journalling on
567		  the side but they should not cause data corruption.  In the worst
568		  case the charged quotas will be out of date ($Quota) and some
569		  userspace applications might get confused due to the out of date
570		  userspace journal ($UsnJrnl).
571	2.1.12:
572		- Fix the second fix to the decompression engine from the 2.1.9 release
573		  and some further internals cleanups.
574	2.1.11:
575		- Driver internal cleanups.
576	2.1.10:
577		- Force read-only (re)mounting of volumes with unsupported volume
578		  flags and various cleanups.
579	2.1.9:
580		- Fix two bugs in handling of corner cases in the decompression engine.
581	2.1.8:
582		- Read the $MFT mirror and compare it to the $MFT and if the two do not
583		  match, force a read-only mount and do not allow read-write remounts.
584		- Read and parse the $LogFile journal and if it indicates that the
585		  volume was not shutdown cleanly, force a read-only mount and do not
586		  allow read-write remounts.  If the $LogFile indicates a clean
587		  shutdown and a read-write (re)mount is requested, empty $LogFile to
588		  ensure that Windows cannot cause data corruption by replaying a stale
589		  journal after Linux has written to the volume.
590		- Improve time handling so that the NTFS time is fully preserved when
591		  converted to kernel time and only up to 99 nano-seconds are lost when
592		  kernel time is converted to NTFS time.
593	2.1.7:
594		- Enable NFS exporting of mounted NTFS volumes.
595	2.1.6:
596		- Fix minor bug in handling of compressed directories that fixes the
597		  erroneous "du" and "stat" output people reported.
598	2.1.5:
599		- Minor bug fix in attribute list attribute handling that fixes the
600		  I/O errors on "ls" of certain fragmented files found by at least two
601		  people running Windows XP.
602	2.1.4:
603		- Minor update allowing compilation with all gcc versions (well, the
604		  ones the kernel can be compiled with anyway).
605	2.1.3:
606		- Major bug fixes for reading files and volumes in corner cases which
607		  were being hit by Windows 2k/XP users.
608	2.1.2:
609		- Major bug fixes alleviating the hangs in statfs experienced by some
610		  users.
611	2.1.1:
612		- Update handling of compressed files so people no longer get the
613		  frequently reported warning messages about initialized_size !=
614		  data_size.
615	2.1.0:
616		- Add configuration option for developmental write support.
617		- Initial implementation of file overwriting. (Writes to resident files
618		  are not written out to disk yet, so avoid writing to files smaller
619		  than about 1kiB.)
620		- Intercept/abort changes in file size as they are not implemented yet.
621	2.0.25:
622		- Minor bugfixes in error code paths and small cleanups.
623	2.0.24:
624		- Small internal cleanups.
625		- Support for sendfile system call. (Christoph Hellwig)
626	2.0.23:
627		- Massive internal locking changes to mft record locking. Fixes
628		  various race conditions and deadlocks.
629		- Fix ntfs over loopback for compressed files by adding an
630		  optimization barrier. (gcc was screwing up otherwise ?)
631		Thanks go to Christoph Hellwig for pointing these two out:
632		- Remove now unused function fs/ntfs/malloc.h::vmalloc_nofs().
633		- Fix ntfs_free() for ia64 and parisc.
634	2.0.22:
635		- Small internal cleanups.
636	2.0.21:
637		These only affect 32-bit architectures:
638		- Check for, and refuse to mount too large volumes (maximum is 2TiB).
639		- Check for, and refuse to open too large files and directories
640		  (maximum is 16TiB).
641	2.0.20:
642		- Support non-resident directory index bitmaps. This means we now cope
643		  with huge directories without problems.
644		- Fix a page leak that manifested itself in some cases when reading
645		  directory contents.
646		- Internal cleanups.
647	2.0.19:
648		- Fix race condition and improvements in block i/o interface.
649		- Optimization when reading compressed files.
650	2.0.18:
651		- Fix race condition in reading of compressed files.
652	2.0.17:
653		- Cleanups and optimizations.
654	2.0.16:
655		- Fix stupid bug introduced in 2.0.15 in new attribute inode API.
656		- Big internal cleanup replacing the mftbmp access hacks by using the
657		  new attribute inode API instead.
658	2.0.15:
659		- Bug fix in parsing of remount options.
660		- Internal changes implementing attribute (fake) inodes allowing all
661		  attribute i/o to go via the page cache and to use all the normal
662		  vfs/mm functionality.
663	2.0.14:
664		- Internal changes improving run list merging code and minor locking
665		  change to not rely on BKL in ntfs_statfs().
666	2.0.13:
667		- Internal changes towards using iget5_locked() in preparation for
668		  fake inodes and small cleanups to ntfs_volume structure.
669	2.0.12:
670		- Internal cleanups in address space operations made possible by the
671		  changes introduced in the previous release.
672	2.0.11:
673		- Internal updates and cleanups introducing the first step towards
674		  fake inode based attribute i/o.
675	2.0.10:
676		- Microsoft says that the maximum number of inodes is 2^32 - 1. Update
677		  the driver accordingly to only use 32-bits to store inode numbers on
678		  32-bit architectures. This improves the speed of the driver a little.
679	2.0.9:
680		- Change decompression engine to use a single buffer. This should not
681		  affect performance except perhaps on the most heavy i/o on SMP
682		  systems when accessing multiple compressed files from multiple
683		  devices simultaneously.
684		- Minor updates and cleanups.
685	2.0.8:
686		- Remove now obsolete show_inodes and posix mount option(s).
687		- Restore show_sys_files mount option.
688		- Add new mount option case_sensitive, to determine if the driver
689		  treats file names as case sensitive or not.
690		- Mostly drop support for short file names (for backwards compatibility
691		  we only support accessing files via their short file name if one
692		  exists).
693		- Fix dcache aliasing issues wrt short/long file names.
694		- Cleanups and minor fixes.
695	2.0.7:
696		- Just cleanups.
697	2.0.6:
698		- Major bugfix to make compatible with other kernel changes. This fixes
699		  the hangs/oopses on umount.
700		- Locking cleanup in directory operations (remove BKL usage).
701	2.0.5:
702		- Major buffer overflow bug fix.
703		- Minor cleanups and updates for kernel 2.5.12.
704	2.0.4:
705		- Cleanups and updates for kernel 2.5.11.
706	2.0.3:
707		- Small bug fixes, cleanups, and performance improvements.
708	2.0.2:
709		- Use default fmask of 0177 so that files are no executable by default.
710		  If you want owner executable files, just use fmask=0077.
711		- Update for kernel 2.5.9 but preserve backwards compatibility with
712		  kernel 2.5.7.
713		- Minor bug fixes, cleanups, and updates.
714	2.0.1:
715		- Minor updates, primarily set the executable bit by default on files
716		  so they can be executed.
717	2.0.0:
718		- Started ChangeLog.
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