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Based on kernel version 3.16. Page generated on 2014-08-06 21:40 EST.

1	How to use packet injection with mac80211
2	=========================================
3	
4	mac80211 now allows arbitrary packets to be injected down any Monitor Mode
5	interface from userland.  The packet you inject needs to be composed in the
6	following format:
7	
8	 [ radiotap header  ]
9	 [ ieee80211 header ]
10	 [ payload ]
11	
12	The radiotap format is discussed in
13	./Documentation/networking/radiotap-headers.txt.
14	
15	Despite many radiotap parameters being currently defined, most only make sense
16	to appear on received packets.  The following information is parsed from the
17	radiotap headers and used to control injection:
18	
19	 * IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_FLAGS
20	
21	   IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_FCS: FCS will be removed and recalculated
22	   IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_WEP: frame will be encrypted if key available
23	   IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_FRAG: frame will be fragmented if longer than the
24				      current fragmentation threshold.
25	
26	 * IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_TX_FLAGS
27	
28	   IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_TX_NOACK: frame should be sent without waiting for
29					  an ACK even if it is a unicast frame
30	
31	The injection code can also skip all other currently defined radiotap fields
32	facilitating replay of captured radiotap headers directly.
33	
34	Here is an example valid radiotap header defining some parameters
35	
36		0x00, 0x00, // <-- radiotap version
37		0x0b, 0x00, // <- radiotap header length
38		0x04, 0x0c, 0x00, 0x00, // <-- bitmap
39		0x6c, // <-- rate
40		0x0c, //<-- tx power
41		0x01 //<-- antenna
42	
43	The ieee80211 header follows immediately afterwards, looking for example like
44	this:
45	
46		0x08, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00,
47		0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
48		0x13, 0x22, 0x33, 0x44, 0x55, 0x66,
49		0x13, 0x22, 0x33, 0x44, 0x55, 0x66,
50		0x10, 0x86
51	
52	Then lastly there is the payload.
53	
54	After composing the packet contents, it is sent by send()-ing it to a logical
55	mac80211 interface that is in Monitor mode.  Libpcap can also be used,
56	(which is easier than doing the work to bind the socket to the right
57	interface), along the following lines:
58	
59		ppcap = pcap_open_live(szInterfaceName, 800, 1, 20, szErrbuf);
60	...
61		r = pcap_inject(ppcap, u8aSendBuffer, nLength);
62	
63	You can also find a link to a complete inject application here:
64	
65	http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Documentation/packetspammer
66	
67	Andy Green <andy@warmcat.com>
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