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Based on kernel version 4.1. Page generated on 2015-06-28 12:15 EST.

1				==============================
2				UNEVICTABLE LRU INFRASTRUCTURE
3				==============================
4	
5	========
6	CONTENTS
7	========
8	
9	 (*) The Unevictable LRU
10	
11	     - The unevictable page list.
12	     - Memory control group interaction.
13	     - Marking address spaces unevictable.
14	     - Detecting Unevictable Pages.
15	     - vmscan's handling of unevictable pages.
16	
17	 (*) mlock()'d pages.
18	
19	     - History.
20	     - Basic management.
21	     - mlock()/mlockall() system call handling.
22	     - Filtering special vmas.
23	     - munlock()/munlockall() system call handling.
24	     - Migrating mlocked pages.
25	     - Compacting mlocked pages.
26	     - mmap(MAP_LOCKED) system call handling.
27	     - munmap()/exit()/exec() system call handling.
28	     - try_to_unmap().
29	     - try_to_munlock() reverse map scan.
30	     - Page reclaim in shrink_*_list().
31	
32	
33	============
34	INTRODUCTION
35	============
36	
37	This document describes the Linux memory manager's "Unevictable LRU"
38	infrastructure and the use of this to manage several types of "unevictable"
39	pages.
40	
41	The document attempts to provide the overall rationale behind this mechanism
42	and the rationale for some of the design decisions that drove the
43	implementation.  The latter design rationale is discussed in the context of an
44	implementation description.  Admittedly, one can obtain the implementation
45	details - the "what does it do?" - by reading the code.  One hopes that the
46	descriptions below add value by provide the answer to "why does it do that?".
47	
48	
49	===================
50	THE UNEVICTABLE LRU
51	===================
52	
53	The Unevictable LRU facility adds an additional LRU list to track unevictable
54	pages and to hide these pages from vmscan.  This mechanism is based on a patch
55	by Larry Woodman of Red Hat to address several scalability problems with page
56	reclaim in Linux.  The problems have been observed at customer sites on large
57	memory x86_64 systems.
58	
59	To illustrate this with an example, a non-NUMA x86_64 platform with 128GB of
60	main memory will have over 32 million 4k pages in a single zone.  When a large
61	fraction of these pages are not evictable for any reason [see below], vmscan
62	will spend a lot of time scanning the LRU lists looking for the small fraction
63	of pages that are evictable.  This can result in a situation where all CPUs are
64	spending 100% of their time in vmscan for hours or days on end, with the system
65	completely unresponsive.
66	
67	The unevictable list addresses the following classes of unevictable pages:
68	
69	 (*) Those owned by ramfs.
70	
71	 (*) Those mapped into SHM_LOCK'd shared memory regions.
72	
73	 (*) Those mapped into VM_LOCKED [mlock()ed] VMAs.
74	
75	The infrastructure may also be able to handle other conditions that make pages
76	unevictable, either by definition or by circumstance, in the future.
77	
78	
79	THE UNEVICTABLE PAGE LIST
80	-------------------------
81	
82	The Unevictable LRU infrastructure consists of an additional, per-zone, LRU list
83	called the "unevictable" list and an associated page flag, PG_unevictable, to
84	indicate that the page is being managed on the unevictable list.
85	
86	The PG_unevictable flag is analogous to, and mutually exclusive with, the
87	PG_active flag in that it indicates on which LRU list a page resides when
88	PG_lru is set.
89	
90	The Unevictable LRU infrastructure maintains unevictable pages on an additional
91	LRU list for a few reasons:
92	
93	 (1) We get to "treat unevictable pages just like we treat other pages in the
94	     system - which means we get to use the same code to manipulate them, the
95	     same code to isolate them (for migrate, etc.), the same code to keep track
96	     of the statistics, etc..." [Rik van Riel]
97	
98	 (2) We want to be able to migrate unevictable pages between nodes for memory
99	     defragmentation, workload management and memory hotplug.  The linux kernel
100	     can only migrate pages that it can successfully isolate from the LRU
101	     lists.  If we were to maintain pages elsewhere than on an LRU-like list,
102	     where they can be found by isolate_lru_page(), we would prevent their
103	     migration, unless we reworked migration code to find the unevictable pages
104	     itself.
105	
106	
107	The unevictable list does not differentiate between file-backed and anonymous,
108	swap-backed pages.  This differentiation is only important while the pages are,
109	in fact, evictable.
110	
111	The unevictable list benefits from the "arrayification" of the per-zone LRU
112	lists and statistics originally proposed and posted by Christoph Lameter.
113	
114	The unevictable list does not use the LRU pagevec mechanism. Rather,
115	unevictable pages are placed directly on the page's zone's unevictable list
116	under the zone lru_lock.  This allows us to prevent the stranding of pages on
117	the unevictable list when one task has the page isolated from the LRU and other
118	tasks are changing the "evictability" state of the page.
119	
120	
121	MEMORY CONTROL GROUP INTERACTION
122	--------------------------------
123	
124	The unevictable LRU facility interacts with the memory control group [aka
125	memory controller; see Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt] by extending the
126	lru_list enum.
127	
128	The memory controller data structure automatically gets a per-zone unevictable
129	list as a result of the "arrayification" of the per-zone LRU lists (one per
130	lru_list enum element).  The memory controller tracks the movement of pages to
131	and from the unevictable list.
132	
133	When a memory control group comes under memory pressure, the controller will
134	not attempt to reclaim pages on the unevictable list.  This has a couple of
135	effects:
136	
137	 (1) Because the pages are "hidden" from reclaim on the unevictable list, the
138	     reclaim process can be more efficient, dealing only with pages that have a
139	     chance of being reclaimed.
140	
141	 (2) On the other hand, if too many of the pages charged to the control group
142	     are unevictable, the evictable portion of the working set of the tasks in
143	     the control group may not fit into the available memory.  This can cause
144	     the control group to thrash or to OOM-kill tasks.
145	
146	
147	MARKING ADDRESS SPACES UNEVICTABLE
148	----------------------------------
149	
150	For facilities such as ramfs none of the pages attached to the address space
151	may be evicted.  To prevent eviction of any such pages, the AS_UNEVICTABLE
152	address space flag is provided, and this can be manipulated by a filesystem
153	using a number of wrapper functions:
154	
155	 (*) void mapping_set_unevictable(struct address_space *mapping);
156	
157		Mark the address space as being completely unevictable.
158	
159	 (*) void mapping_clear_unevictable(struct address_space *mapping);
160	
161		Mark the address space as being evictable.
162	
163	 (*) int mapping_unevictable(struct address_space *mapping);
164	
165		Query the address space, and return true if it is completely
166		unevictable.
167	
168	These are currently used in two places in the kernel:
169	
170	 (1) By ramfs to mark the address spaces of its inodes when they are created,
171	     and this mark remains for the life of the inode.
172	
173	 (2) By SYSV SHM to mark SHM_LOCK'd address spaces until SHM_UNLOCK is called.
174	
175	     Note that SHM_LOCK is not required to page in the locked pages if they're
176	     swapped out; the application must touch the pages manually if it wants to
177	     ensure they're in memory.
178	
179	
180	DETECTING UNEVICTABLE PAGES
181	---------------------------
182	
183	The function page_evictable() in vmscan.c determines whether a page is
184	evictable or not using the query function outlined above [see section "Marking
185	address spaces unevictable"] to check the AS_UNEVICTABLE flag.
186	
187	For address spaces that are so marked after being populated (as SHM regions
188	might be), the lock action (eg: SHM_LOCK) can be lazy, and need not populate
189	the page tables for the region as does, for example, mlock(), nor need it make
190	any special effort to push any pages in the SHM_LOCK'd area to the unevictable
191	list.  Instead, vmscan will do this if and when it encounters the pages during
192	a reclamation scan.
193	
194	On an unlock action (such as SHM_UNLOCK), the unlocker (eg: shmctl()) must scan
195	the pages in the region and "rescue" them from the unevictable list if no other
196	condition is keeping them unevictable.  If an unevictable region is destroyed,
197	the pages are also "rescued" from the unevictable list in the process of
198	freeing them.
199	
200	page_evictable() also checks for mlocked pages by testing an additional page
201	flag, PG_mlocked (as wrapped by PageMlocked()), which is set when a page is
202	faulted into a VM_LOCKED vma, or found in a vma being VM_LOCKED.
203	
204	
205	VMSCAN'S HANDLING OF UNEVICTABLE PAGES
206	--------------------------------------
207	
208	If unevictable pages are culled in the fault path, or moved to the unevictable
209	list at mlock() or mmap() time, vmscan will not encounter the pages until they
210	have become evictable again (via munlock() for example) and have been "rescued"
211	from the unevictable list.  However, there may be situations where we decide,
212	for the sake of expediency, to leave a unevictable page on one of the regular
213	active/inactive LRU lists for vmscan to deal with.  vmscan checks for such
214	pages in all of the shrink_{active|inactive|page}_list() functions and will
215	"cull" such pages that it encounters: that is, it diverts those pages to the
216	unevictable list for the zone being scanned.
217	
218	There may be situations where a page is mapped into a VM_LOCKED VMA, but the
219	page is not marked as PG_mlocked.  Such pages will make it all the way to
220	shrink_page_list() where they will be detected when vmscan walks the reverse
221	map in try_to_unmap().  If try_to_unmap() returns SWAP_MLOCK,
222	shrink_page_list() will cull the page at that point.
223	
224	To "cull" an unevictable page, vmscan simply puts the page back on the LRU list
225	using putback_lru_page() - the inverse operation to isolate_lru_page() - after
226	dropping the page lock.  Because the condition which makes the page unevictable
227	may change once the page is unlocked, putback_lru_page() will recheck the
228	unevictable state of a page that it places on the unevictable list.  If the
229	page has become unevictable, putback_lru_page() removes it from the list and
230	retries, including the page_unevictable() test.  Because such a race is a rare
231	event and movement of pages onto the unevictable list should be rare, these
232	extra evictabilty checks should not occur in the majority of calls to
233	putback_lru_page().
234	
235	
236	=============
237	MLOCKED PAGES
238	=============
239	
240	The unevictable page list is also useful for mlock(), in addition to ramfs and
241	SYSV SHM.  Note that mlock() is only available in CONFIG_MMU=y situations; in
242	NOMMU situations, all mappings are effectively mlocked.
243	
244	
245	HISTORY
246	-------
247	
248	The "Unevictable mlocked Pages" infrastructure is based on work originally
249	posted by Nick Piggin in an RFC patch entitled "mm: mlocked pages off LRU".
250	Nick posted his patch as an alternative to a patch posted by Christoph Lameter
251	to achieve the same objective: hiding mlocked pages from vmscan.
252	
253	In Nick's patch, he used one of the struct page LRU list link fields as a count
254	of VM_LOCKED VMAs that map the page.  This use of the link field for a count
255	prevented the management of the pages on an LRU list, and thus mlocked pages
256	were not migratable as isolate_lru_page() could not find them, and the LRU list
257	link field was not available to the migration subsystem.
258	
259	Nick resolved this by putting mlocked pages back on the lru list before
260	attempting to isolate them, thus abandoning the count of VM_LOCKED VMAs.  When
261	Nick's patch was integrated with the Unevictable LRU work, the count was
262	replaced by walking the reverse map to determine whether any VM_LOCKED VMAs
263	mapped the page.  More on this below.
264	
265	
266	BASIC MANAGEMENT
267	----------------
268	
269	mlocked pages - pages mapped into a VM_LOCKED VMA - are a class of unevictable
270	pages.  When such a page has been "noticed" by the memory management subsystem,
271	the page is marked with the PG_mlocked flag.  This can be manipulated using the
272	PageMlocked() functions.
273	
274	A PG_mlocked page will be placed on the unevictable list when it is added to
275	the LRU.  Such pages can be "noticed" by memory management in several places:
276	
277	 (1) in the mlock()/mlockall() system call handlers;
278	
279	 (2) in the mmap() system call handler when mmapping a region with the
280	     MAP_LOCKED flag;
281	
282	 (3) mmapping a region in a task that has called mlockall() with the MCL_FUTURE
283	     flag
284	
285	 (4) in the fault path, if mlocked pages are "culled" in the fault path,
286	     and when a VM_LOCKED stack segment is expanded; or
287	
288	 (5) as mentioned above, in vmscan:shrink_page_list() when attempting to
289	     reclaim a page in a VM_LOCKED VMA via try_to_unmap()
290	
291	all of which result in the VM_LOCKED flag being set for the VMA if it doesn't
292	already have it set.
293	
294	mlocked pages become unlocked and rescued from the unevictable list when:
295	
296	 (1) mapped in a range unlocked via the munlock()/munlockall() system calls;
297	
298	 (2) munmap()'d out of the last VM_LOCKED VMA that maps the page, including
299	     unmapping at task exit;
300	
301	 (3) when the page is truncated from the last VM_LOCKED VMA of an mmapped file;
302	     or
303	
304	 (4) before a page is COW'd in a VM_LOCKED VMA.
305	
306	
307	mlock()/mlockall() SYSTEM CALL HANDLING
308	---------------------------------------
309	
310	Both [do_]mlock() and [do_]mlockall() system call handlers call mlock_fixup()
311	for each VMA in the range specified by the call.  In the case of mlockall(),
312	this is the entire active address space of the task.  Note that mlock_fixup()
313	is used for both mlocking and munlocking a range of memory.  A call to mlock()
314	an already VM_LOCKED VMA, or to munlock() a VMA that is not VM_LOCKED is
315	treated as a no-op, and mlock_fixup() simply returns.
316	
317	If the VMA passes some filtering as described in "Filtering Special Vmas"
318	below, mlock_fixup() will attempt to merge the VMA with its neighbors or split
319	off a subset of the VMA if the range does not cover the entire VMA.  Once the
320	VMA has been merged or split or neither, mlock_fixup() will call
321	populate_vma_page_range() to fault in the pages via get_user_pages() and to
322	mark the pages as mlocked via mlock_vma_page().
323	
324	Note that the VMA being mlocked might be mapped with PROT_NONE.  In this case,
325	get_user_pages() will be unable to fault in the pages.  That's okay.  If pages
326	do end up getting faulted into this VM_LOCKED VMA, we'll handle them in the
327	fault path or in vmscan.
328	
329	Also note that a page returned by get_user_pages() could be truncated or
330	migrated out from under us, while we're trying to mlock it.  To detect this,
331	populate_vma_page_range() checks page_mapping() after acquiring the page lock.
332	If the page is still associated with its mapping, we'll go ahead and call
333	mlock_vma_page().  If the mapping is gone, we just unlock the page and move on.
334	In the worst case, this will result in a page mapped in a VM_LOCKED VMA
335	remaining on a normal LRU list without being PageMlocked().  Again, vmscan will
336	detect and cull such pages.
337	
338	mlock_vma_page() will call TestSetPageMlocked() for each page returned by
339	get_user_pages().  We use TestSetPageMlocked() because the page might already
340	be mlocked by another task/VMA and we don't want to do extra work.  We
341	especially do not want to count an mlocked page more than once in the
342	statistics.  If the page was already mlocked, mlock_vma_page() need do nothing
343	more.
344	
345	If the page was NOT already mlocked, mlock_vma_page() attempts to isolate the
346	page from the LRU, as it is likely on the appropriate active or inactive list
347	at that time.  If the isolate_lru_page() succeeds, mlock_vma_page() will put
348	back the page - by calling putback_lru_page() - which will notice that the page
349	is now mlocked and divert the page to the zone's unevictable list.  If
350	mlock_vma_page() is unable to isolate the page from the LRU, vmscan will handle
351	it later if and when it attempts to reclaim the page.
352	
353	
354	FILTERING SPECIAL VMAS
355	----------------------
356	
357	mlock_fixup() filters several classes of "special" VMAs:
358	
359	1) VMAs with VM_IO or VM_PFNMAP set are skipped entirely.  The pages behind
360	   these mappings are inherently pinned, so we don't need to mark them as
361	   mlocked.  In any case, most of the pages have no struct page in which to so
362	   mark the page.  Because of this, get_user_pages() will fail for these VMAs,
363	   so there is no sense in attempting to visit them.
364	
365	2) VMAs mapping hugetlbfs page are already effectively pinned into memory.  We
366	   neither need nor want to mlock() these pages.  However, to preserve the
367	   prior behavior of mlock() - before the unevictable/mlock changes -
368	   mlock_fixup() will call make_pages_present() in the hugetlbfs VMA range to
369	   allocate the huge pages and populate the ptes.
370	
371	3) VMAs with VM_DONTEXPAND are generally userspace mappings of kernel pages,
372	   such as the VDSO page, relay channel pages, etc. These pages
373	   are inherently unevictable and are not managed on the LRU lists.
374	   mlock_fixup() treats these VMAs the same as hugetlbfs VMAs.  It calls
375	   make_pages_present() to populate the ptes.
376	
377	Note that for all of these special VMAs, mlock_fixup() does not set the
378	VM_LOCKED flag.  Therefore, we won't have to deal with them later during
379	munlock(), munmap() or task exit.  Neither does mlock_fixup() account these
380	VMAs against the task's "locked_vm".
381	
382	
383	munlock()/munlockall() SYSTEM CALL HANDLING
384	-------------------------------------------
385	
386	The munlock() and munlockall() system calls are handled by the same functions -
387	do_mlock[all]() - as the mlock() and mlockall() system calls with the unlock vs
388	lock operation indicated by an argument.  So, these system calls are also
389	handled by mlock_fixup().  Again, if called for an already munlocked VMA,
390	mlock_fixup() simply returns.  Because of the VMA filtering discussed above,
391	VM_LOCKED will not be set in any "special" VMAs.  So, these VMAs will be
392	ignored for munlock.
393	
394	If the VMA is VM_LOCKED, mlock_fixup() again attempts to merge or split off the
395	specified range.  The range is then munlocked via the function
396	populate_vma_page_range() - the same function used to mlock a VMA range -
397	passing a flag to indicate that munlock() is being performed.
398	
399	Because the VMA access protections could have been changed to PROT_NONE after
400	faulting in and mlocking pages, get_user_pages() was unreliable for visiting
401	these pages for munlocking.  Because we don't want to leave pages mlocked,
402	get_user_pages() was enhanced to accept a flag to ignore the permissions when
403	fetching the pages - all of which should be resident as a result of previous
404	mlocking.
405	
406	For munlock(), populate_vma_page_range() unlocks individual pages by calling
407	munlock_vma_page().  munlock_vma_page() unconditionally clears the PG_mlocked
408	flag using TestClearPageMlocked().  As with mlock_vma_page(),
409	munlock_vma_page() use the Test*PageMlocked() function to handle the case where
410	the page might have already been unlocked by another task.  If the page was
411	mlocked, munlock_vma_page() updates that zone statistics for the number of
412	mlocked pages.  Note, however, that at this point we haven't checked whether
413	the page is mapped by other VM_LOCKED VMAs.
414	
415	We can't call try_to_munlock(), the function that walks the reverse map to
416	check for other VM_LOCKED VMAs, without first isolating the page from the LRU.
417	try_to_munlock() is a variant of try_to_unmap() and thus requires that the page
418	not be on an LRU list [more on these below].  However, the call to
419	isolate_lru_page() could fail, in which case we couldn't try_to_munlock().  So,
420	we go ahead and clear PG_mlocked up front, as this might be the only chance we
421	have.  If we can successfully isolate the page, we go ahead and
422	try_to_munlock(), which will restore the PG_mlocked flag and update the zone
423	page statistics if it finds another VMA holding the page mlocked.  If we fail
424	to isolate the page, we'll have left a potentially mlocked page on the LRU.
425	This is fine, because we'll catch it later if and if vmscan tries to reclaim
426	the page.  This should be relatively rare.
427	
428	
429	MIGRATING MLOCKED PAGES
430	-----------------------
431	
432	A page that is being migrated has been isolated from the LRU lists and is held
433	locked across unmapping of the page, updating the page's address space entry
434	and copying the contents and state, until the page table entry has been
435	replaced with an entry that refers to the new page.  Linux supports migration
436	of mlocked pages and other unevictable pages.  This involves simply moving the
437	PG_mlocked and PG_unevictable states from the old page to the new page.
438	
439	Note that page migration can race with mlocking or munlocking of the same page.
440	This has been discussed from the mlock/munlock perspective in the respective
441	sections above.  Both processes (migration and m[un]locking) hold the page
442	locked.  This provides the first level of synchronization.  Page migration
443	zeros out the page_mapping of the old page before unlocking it, so m[un]lock
444	can skip these pages by testing the page mapping under page lock.
445	
446	To complete page migration, we place the new and old pages back onto the LRU
447	after dropping the page lock.  The "unneeded" page - old page on success, new
448	page on failure - will be freed when the reference count held by the migration
449	process is released.  To ensure that we don't strand pages on the unevictable
450	list because of a race between munlock and migration, page migration uses the
451	putback_lru_page() function to add migrated pages back to the LRU.
452	
453	
454	COMPACTING MLOCKED PAGES
455	------------------------
456	
457	The unevictable LRU can be scanned for compactable regions and the default
458	behavior is to do so.  /proc/sys/vm/compact_unevictable_allowed controls
459	this behavior (see Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt).  Once scanning of the
460	unevictable LRU is enabled, the work of compaction is mostly handled by
461	the page migration code and the same work flow as described in MIGRATING
462	MLOCKED PAGES will apply.
463	
464	
465	mmap(MAP_LOCKED) SYSTEM CALL HANDLING
466	-------------------------------------
467	
468	In addition the mlock()/mlockall() system calls, an application can request
469	that a region of memory be mlocked supplying the MAP_LOCKED flag to the mmap()
470	call.  Furthermore, any mmap() call or brk() call that expands the heap by a
471	task that has previously called mlockall() with the MCL_FUTURE flag will result
472	in the newly mapped memory being mlocked.  Before the unevictable/mlock
473	changes, the kernel simply called make_pages_present() to allocate pages and
474	populate the page table.
475	
476	To mlock a range of memory under the unevictable/mlock infrastructure, the
477	mmap() handler and task address space expansion functions call
478	populate_vma_page_range() specifying the vma and the address range to mlock.
479	
480	The callers of populate_vma_page_range() will have already added the memory range
481	to be mlocked to the task's "locked_vm".  To account for filtered VMAs,
482	populate_vma_page_range() returns the number of pages NOT mlocked.  All of the
483	callers then subtract a non-negative return value from the task's locked_vm.  A
484	negative return value represent an error - for example, from get_user_pages()
485	attempting to fault in a VMA with PROT_NONE access.  In this case, we leave the
486	memory range accounted as locked_vm, as the protections could be changed later
487	and pages allocated into that region.
488	
489	
490	munmap()/exit()/exec() SYSTEM CALL HANDLING
491	-------------------------------------------
492	
493	When unmapping an mlocked region of memory, whether by an explicit call to
494	munmap() or via an internal unmap from exit() or exec() processing, we must
495	munlock the pages if we're removing the last VM_LOCKED VMA that maps the pages.
496	Before the unevictable/mlock changes, mlocking did not mark the pages in any
497	way, so unmapping them required no processing.
498	
499	To munlock a range of memory under the unevictable/mlock infrastructure, the
500	munmap() handler and task address space call tear down function
501	munlock_vma_pages_all().  The name reflects the observation that one always
502	specifies the entire VMA range when munlock()ing during unmap of a region.
503	Because of the VMA filtering when mlocking() regions, only "normal" VMAs that
504	actually contain mlocked pages will be passed to munlock_vma_pages_all().
505	
506	munlock_vma_pages_all() clears the VM_LOCKED VMA flag and, like mlock_fixup()
507	for the munlock case, calls __munlock_vma_pages_range() to walk the page table
508	for the VMA's memory range and munlock_vma_page() each resident page mapped by
509	the VMA.  This effectively munlocks the page, only if this is the last
510	VM_LOCKED VMA that maps the page.
511	
512	
513	try_to_unmap()
514	--------------
515	
516	Pages can, of course, be mapped into multiple VMAs.  Some of these VMAs may
517	have VM_LOCKED flag set.  It is possible for a page mapped into one or more
518	VM_LOCKED VMAs not to have the PG_mlocked flag set and therefore reside on one
519	of the active or inactive LRU lists.  This could happen if, for example, a task
520	in the process of munlocking the page could not isolate the page from the LRU.
521	As a result, vmscan/shrink_page_list() might encounter such a page as described
522	in section "vmscan's handling of unevictable pages".  To handle this situation,
523	try_to_unmap() checks for VM_LOCKED VMAs while it is walking a page's reverse
524	map.
525	
526	try_to_unmap() is always called, by either vmscan for reclaim or for page
527	migration, with the argument page locked and isolated from the LRU.  Separate
528	functions handle anonymous and mapped file pages, as these types of pages have
529	different reverse map mechanisms.
530	
531	 (*) try_to_unmap_anon()
532	
533	     To unmap anonymous pages, each VMA in the list anchored in the anon_vma
534	     must be visited - at least until a VM_LOCKED VMA is encountered.  If the
535	     page is being unmapped for migration, VM_LOCKED VMAs do not stop the
536	     process because mlocked pages are migratable.  However, for reclaim, if
537	     the page is mapped into a VM_LOCKED VMA, the scan stops.
538	
539	     try_to_unmap_anon() attempts to acquire in read mode the mmap semaphore of
540	     the mm_struct to which the VMA belongs.  If this is successful, it will
541	     mlock the page via mlock_vma_page() - we wouldn't have gotten to
542	     try_to_unmap_anon() if the page were already mlocked - and will return
543	     SWAP_MLOCK, indicating that the page is unevictable.
544	
545	     If the mmap semaphore cannot be acquired, we are not sure whether the page
546	     is really unevictable or not.  In this case, try_to_unmap_anon() will
547	     return SWAP_AGAIN.
548	
549	 (*) try_to_unmap_file() - linear mappings
550	
551	     Unmapping of a mapped file page works the same as for anonymous mappings,
552	     except that the scan visits all VMAs that map the page's index/page offset
553	     in the page's mapping's reverse map priority search tree.  It also visits
554	     each VMA in the page's mapping's non-linear list, if the list is
555	     non-empty.
556	
557	     As for anonymous pages, on encountering a VM_LOCKED VMA for a mapped file
558	     page, try_to_unmap_file() will attempt to acquire the associated
559	     mm_struct's mmap semaphore to mlock the page, returning SWAP_MLOCK if this
560	     is successful, and SWAP_AGAIN, if not.
561	
562	 (*) try_to_unmap_file() - non-linear mappings
563	
564	     If a page's mapping contains a non-empty non-linear mapping VMA list, then
565	     try_to_un{map|lock}() must also visit each VMA in that list to determine
566	     whether the page is mapped in a VM_LOCKED VMA.  Again, the scan must visit
567	     all VMAs in the non-linear list to ensure that the pages is not/should not
568	     be mlocked.
569	
570	     If a VM_LOCKED VMA is found in the list, the scan could terminate.
571	     However, there is no easy way to determine whether the page is actually
572	     mapped in a given VMA - either for unmapping or testing whether the
573	     VM_LOCKED VMA actually pins the page.
574	
575	     try_to_unmap_file() handles non-linear mappings by scanning a certain
576	     number of pages - a "cluster" - in each non-linear VMA associated with the
577	     page's mapping, for each file mapped page that vmscan tries to unmap.  If
578	     this happens to unmap the page we're trying to unmap, try_to_unmap() will
579	     notice this on return (page_mapcount(page) will be 0) and return
580	     SWAP_SUCCESS.  Otherwise, it will return SWAP_AGAIN, causing vmscan to
581	     recirculate this page.  We take advantage of the cluster scan in
582	     try_to_unmap_cluster() as follows:
583	
584		For each non-linear VMA, try_to_unmap_cluster() attempts to acquire the
585		mmap semaphore of the associated mm_struct for read without blocking.
586	
587		If this attempt is successful and the VMA is VM_LOCKED,
588		try_to_unmap_cluster() will retain the mmap semaphore for the scan;
589		otherwise it drops it here.
590	
591		Then, for each page in the cluster, if we're holding the mmap semaphore
592		for a locked VMA, try_to_unmap_cluster() calls mlock_vma_page() to
593		mlock the page.  This call is a no-op if the page is already locked,
594		but will mlock any pages in the non-linear mapping that happen to be
595		unlocked.
596	
597		If one of the pages so mlocked is the page passed in to try_to_unmap(),
598		try_to_unmap_cluster() will return SWAP_MLOCK, rather than the default
599		SWAP_AGAIN.  This will allow vmscan to cull the page, rather than
600		recirculating it on the inactive list.
601	
602		Again, if try_to_unmap_cluster() cannot acquire the VMA's mmap sem, it
603		returns SWAP_AGAIN, indicating that the page is mapped by a VM_LOCKED
604		VMA, but couldn't be mlocked.
605	
606	
607	try_to_munlock() REVERSE MAP SCAN
608	---------------------------------
609	
610	 [!] TODO/FIXME: a better name might be page_mlocked() - analogous to the
611	     page_referenced() reverse map walker.
612	
613	When munlock_vma_page() [see section "munlock()/munlockall() System Call
614	Handling" above] tries to munlock a page, it needs to determine whether or not
615	the page is mapped by any VM_LOCKED VMA without actually attempting to unmap
616	all PTEs from the page.  For this purpose, the unevictable/mlock infrastructure
617	introduced a variant of try_to_unmap() called try_to_munlock().
618	
619	try_to_munlock() calls the same functions as try_to_unmap() for anonymous and
620	mapped file pages with an additional argument specifying unlock versus unmap
621	processing.  Again, these functions walk the respective reverse maps looking
622	for VM_LOCKED VMAs.  When such a VMA is found for anonymous pages and file
623	pages mapped in linear VMAs, as in the try_to_unmap() case, the functions
624	attempt to acquire the associated mmap semaphore, mlock the page via
625	mlock_vma_page() and return SWAP_MLOCK.  This effectively undoes the
626	pre-clearing of the page's PG_mlocked done by munlock_vma_page.
627	
628	If try_to_unmap() is unable to acquire a VM_LOCKED VMA's associated mmap
629	semaphore, it will return SWAP_AGAIN.  This will allow shrink_page_list() to
630	recycle the page on the inactive list and hope that it has better luck with the
631	page next time.
632	
633	For file pages mapped into non-linear VMAs, the try_to_munlock() logic works
634	slightly differently.  On encountering a VM_LOCKED non-linear VMA that might
635	map the page, try_to_munlock() returns SWAP_AGAIN without actually mlocking the
636	page.  munlock_vma_page() will just leave the page unlocked and let vmscan deal
637	with it - the usual fallback position.
638	
639	Note that try_to_munlock()'s reverse map walk must visit every VMA in a page's
640	reverse map to determine that a page is NOT mapped into any VM_LOCKED VMA.
641	However, the scan can terminate when it encounters a VM_LOCKED VMA and can
642	successfully acquire the VMA's mmap semaphore for read and mlock the page.
643	Although try_to_munlock() might be called a great many times when munlocking a
644	large region or tearing down a large address space that has been mlocked via
645	mlockall(), overall this is a fairly rare event.
646	
647	
648	PAGE RECLAIM IN shrink_*_list()
649	-------------------------------
650	
651	shrink_active_list() culls any obviously unevictable pages - i.e.
652	!page_evictable(page) - diverting these to the unevictable list.
653	However, shrink_active_list() only sees unevictable pages that made it onto the
654	active/inactive lru lists.  Note that these pages do not have PageUnevictable
655	set - otherwise they would be on the unevictable list and shrink_active_list
656	would never see them.
657	
658	Some examples of these unevictable pages on the LRU lists are:
659	
660	 (1) ramfs pages that have been placed on the LRU lists when first allocated.
661	
662	 (2) SHM_LOCK'd shared memory pages.  shmctl(SHM_LOCK) does not attempt to
663	     allocate or fault in the pages in the shared memory region.  This happens
664	     when an application accesses the page the first time after SHM_LOCK'ing
665	     the segment.
666	
667	 (3) mlocked pages that could not be isolated from the LRU and moved to the
668	     unevictable list in mlock_vma_page().
669	
670	 (4) Pages mapped into multiple VM_LOCKED VMAs, but try_to_munlock() couldn't
671	     acquire the VMA's mmap semaphore to test the flags and set PageMlocked.
672	     munlock_vma_page() was forced to let the page back on to the normal LRU
673	     list for vmscan to handle.
674	
675	shrink_inactive_list() also diverts any unevictable pages that it finds on the
676	inactive lists to the appropriate zone's unevictable list.
677	
678	shrink_inactive_list() should only see SHM_LOCK'd pages that became SHM_LOCK'd
679	after shrink_active_list() had moved them to the inactive list, or pages mapped
680	into VM_LOCKED VMAs that munlock_vma_page() couldn't isolate from the LRU to
681	recheck via try_to_munlock().  shrink_inactive_list() won't notice the latter,
682	but will pass on to shrink_page_list().
683	
684	shrink_page_list() again culls obviously unevictable pages that it could
685	encounter for similar reason to shrink_inactive_list().  Pages mapped into
686	VM_LOCKED VMAs but without PG_mlocked set will make it all the way to
687	try_to_unmap().  shrink_page_list() will divert them to the unevictable list
688	when try_to_unmap() returns SWAP_MLOCK, as discussed above.
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