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Based on kernel version 4.0. Page generated on 2015-04-14 21:26 EST.

3	    "Good for you, you've decided to clean the elevator!"
4	    - The Elevator, from Dark Star
6	Smack is the Simplified Mandatory Access Control Kernel.
7	Smack is a kernel based implementation of mandatory access
8	control that includes simplicity in its primary design goals.
10	Smack is not the only Mandatory Access Control scheme
11	available for Linux. Those new to Mandatory Access Control
12	are encouraged to compare Smack with the other mechanisms
13	available to determine which is best suited to the problem
14	at hand.
16	Smack consists of three major components:
17	    - The kernel
18	    - Basic utilities, which are helpful but not required
19	    - Configuration data
21	The kernel component of Smack is implemented as a Linux
22	Security Modules (LSM) module. It requires netlabel and
23	works best with file systems that support extended attributes,
24	although xattr support is not strictly required.
25	It is safe to run a Smack kernel under a "vanilla" distribution.
27	Smack kernels use the CIPSO IP option. Some network
28	configurations are intolerant of IP options and can impede
29	access to systems that use them as Smack does.
31	The current git repository for Smack user space is:
33		git://github.com/smack-team/smack.git
35	This should make and install on most modern distributions.
36	There are three commands included in smackutil:
38	smackload  - properly formats data for writing to /smack/load
39	smackcipso - properly formats data for writing to /smack/cipso
40	chsmack    - display or set Smack extended attribute values
42	In keeping with the intent of Smack, configuration data is
43	minimal and not strictly required. The most important
44	configuration step is mounting the smackfs pseudo filesystem.
45	If smackutil is installed the startup script will take care
46	of this, but it can be manually as well.
48	Add this line to /etc/fstab:
50	    smackfs /smack smackfs smackfsdef=* 0 0
52	and create the /smack directory for mounting.
54	Smack uses extended attributes (xattrs) to store labels on filesystem
55	objects. The attributes are stored in the extended attribute security
56	name space. A process must have CAP_MAC_ADMIN to change any of these
57	attributes.
59	The extended attributes that Smack uses are:
61	SMACK64
62		Used to make access control decisions. In almost all cases
63		the label given to a new filesystem object will be the label
64		of the process that created it.
66		The Smack label of a process that execs a program file with
67		this attribute set will run with this attribute's value.
69		Don't allow the file to be mmapped by a process whose Smack
70		label does not allow all of the access permitted to a process
71		with the label contained in this attribute. This is a very
72		specific use case for shared libraries.
74		Can only have the value "TRUE". If this attribute is present
75		on a directory when an object is created in the directory and
76		the Smack rule (more below) that permitted the write access
77		to the directory includes the transmute ("t") mode the object
78		gets the label of the directory instead of the label of the
79		creating process. If the object being created is a directory
80		the SMACK64TRANSMUTE attribute is set as well.
82		This attribute is only available on file descriptors for sockets.
83		Use the Smack label in this attribute for access control
84		decisions on packets being delivered to this socket.
86		This attribute is only available on file descriptors for sockets.
87		Use the Smack label in this attribute for access control
88		decisions on packets coming from this socket.
90	There are multiple ways to set a Smack label on a file:
92	    # attr -S -s SMACK64 -V "value" path
93	    # chsmack -a value path
95	A process can see the smack label it is running with by
96	reading /proc/self/attr/current. A process with CAP_MAC_ADMIN
97	can set the process smack by writing there.
99	Most Smack configuration is accomplished by writing to files
100	in the smackfs filesystem. This pseudo-filesystem is usually
101	mounted on /smack.
103	access
104		This interface reports whether a subject with the specified
105		Smack label has a particular access to an object with a
106		specified Smack label. Write a fixed format access rule to
107		this file. The next read will indicate whether the access
108		would be permitted. The text will be either "1" indicating
109		access, or "0" indicating denial.
110	access2
111		This interface reports whether a subject with the specified
112		Smack label has a particular access to an object with a
113		specified Smack label. Write a long format access rule to
114		this file. The next read will indicate whether the access
115		would be permitted. The text will be either "1" indicating
116		access, or "0" indicating denial.
117	ambient
118		This contains the Smack label applied to unlabeled network
119		packets.
120	change-rule
121		This interface allows modification of existing access control rules.
122		The format accepted on write is:
123			"%s %s %s %s"
124		where the first string is the subject label, the second the
125		object label, the third the access to allow and the fourth the
126		access to deny. The access strings may contain only the characters
127		"rwxat-". If a rule for a given subject and object exists it will be
128		modified by enabling the permissions in the third string and disabling
129		those in the fourth string. If there is no such rule it will be
130		created using the access specified in the third and the fourth strings.
131	cipso
132		This interface allows a specific CIPSO header to be assigned
133		to a Smack label. The format accepted on write is:
134			"%24s%4d%4d"["%4d"]...
135		The first string is a fixed Smack label. The first number is
136		the level to use. The second number is the number of categories.
137		The following numbers are the categories.
138		"level-3-cats-5-19          3   2   5  19"
139	cipso2
140		This interface allows a specific CIPSO header to be assigned
141		to a Smack label. The format accepted on write is:
142		"%s%4d%4d"["%4d"]...
143		The first string is a long Smack label. The first number is
144		the level to use. The second number is the number of categories.
145		The following numbers are the categories.
146		"level-3-cats-5-19   3   2   5  19"
147	direct
148		This contains the CIPSO level used for Smack direct label
149		representation in network packets.
150	doi
151		This contains the CIPSO domain of interpretation used in
152		network packets.
153	load
154		This interface allows access control rules in addition to
155		the system defined rules to be specified. The format accepted
156		on write is:
157			"%24s%24s%5s"
158		where the first string is the subject label, the second the
159		object label, and the third the requested access. The access
160		string may contain only the characters "rwxat-", and specifies
161		which sort of access is allowed. The "-" is a placeholder for
162		permissions that are not allowed. The string "r-x--" would
163		specify read and execute access. Labels are limited to 23
164		characters in length.
165	load2
166		This interface allows access control rules in addition to
167		the system defined rules to be specified. The format accepted
168		on write is:
169			"%s %s %s"
170		where the first string is the subject label, the second the
171		object label, and the third the requested access. The access
172		string may contain only the characters "rwxat-", and specifies
173		which sort of access is allowed. The "-" is a placeholder for
174		permissions that are not allowed. The string "r-x--" would
175		specify read and execute access.
176	load-self
177		This interface allows process specific access rules to be
178		defined. These rules are only consulted if access would
179		otherwise be permitted, and are intended to provide additional
180		restrictions on the process. The format is the same as for
181		the load interface.
182	load-self2
183		This interface allows process specific access rules to be
184		defined. These rules are only consulted if access would
185		otherwise be permitted, and are intended to provide additional
186		restrictions on the process. The format is the same as for
187		the load2 interface.
188	logging
189		This contains the Smack logging state.
190	mapped
191		This contains the CIPSO level used for Smack mapped label
192		representation in network packets.
193	netlabel
194		This interface allows specific internet addresses to be
195		treated as single label hosts. Packets are sent to single
196		label hosts without CIPSO headers, but only from processes
197		that have Smack write access to the host label. All packets
198		received from single label hosts are given the specified
199		label. The format accepted on write is:
200			"%d.%d.%d.%d label" or "%d.%d.%d.%d/%d label".
201	onlycap
202		This contains the label processes must have for CAP_MAC_ADMIN
203		and CAP_MAC_OVERRIDE to be effective. If this file is empty
204		these capabilities are effective at for processes with any
205		label. The value is set by writing the desired label to the
206		file or cleared by writing "-" to the file.
207	ptrace
208		This is used to define the current ptrace policy
209		0 - default: this is the policy that relies on smack access rules.
210		    For the PTRACE_READ a subject needs to have a read access on
211		    object. For the PTRACE_ATTACH a read-write access is required.
212		1 - exact: this is the policy that limits PTRACE_ATTACH. Attach is
213		    only allowed when subject's and object's labels are equal.
214		    PTRACE_READ is not affected. Can be overriden with CAP_SYS_PTRACE.
215		2 - draconian: this policy behaves like the 'exact' above with an
216		    exception that it can't be overriden with CAP_SYS_PTRACE.
217	revoke-subject
218		Writing a Smack label here sets the access to '-' for all access
219		rules with that subject label.
221	You can add access rules in /etc/smack/accesses. They take the form:
223	    subjectlabel objectlabel access
225	access is a combination of the letters rwxa which specify the
226	kind of access permitted a subject with subjectlabel on an
227	object with objectlabel. If there is no rule no access is allowed.
229	Look for additional programs on http://schaufler-ca.com
231	From the Smack Whitepaper:
233	The Simplified Mandatory Access Control Kernel
235	Casey Schaufler
236	casey@schaufler-ca.com
238	Mandatory Access Control
240	Computer systems employ a variety of schemes to constrain how information is
241	shared among the people and services using the machine. Some of these schemes
242	allow the program or user to decide what other programs or users are allowed
243	access to pieces of data. These schemes are called discretionary access
244	control mechanisms because the access control is specified at the discretion
245	of the user. Other schemes do not leave the decision regarding what a user or
246	program can access up to users or programs. These schemes are called mandatory
247	access control mechanisms because you don't have a choice regarding the users
248	or programs that have access to pieces of data.
250	Bell & LaPadula
252	From the middle of the 1980's until the turn of the century Mandatory Access
253	Control (MAC) was very closely associated with the Bell & LaPadula security
254	model, a mathematical description of the United States Department of Defense
255	policy for marking paper documents. MAC in this form enjoyed a following
256	within the Capital Beltway and Scandinavian supercomputer centers but was
257	often sited as failing to address general needs.
259	Domain Type Enforcement
261	Around the turn of the century Domain Type Enforcement (DTE) became popular.
262	This scheme organizes users, programs, and data into domains that are
263	protected from each other. This scheme has been widely deployed as a component
264	of popular Linux distributions. The administrative overhead required to
265	maintain this scheme and the detailed understanding of the whole system
266	necessary to provide a secure domain mapping leads to the scheme being
267	disabled or used in limited ways in the majority of cases.
269	Smack
271	Smack is a Mandatory Access Control mechanism designed to provide useful MAC
272	while avoiding the pitfalls of its predecessors. The limitations of Bell &
273	LaPadula are addressed by providing a scheme whereby access can be controlled
274	according to the requirements of the system and its purpose rather than those
275	imposed by an arcane government policy. The complexity of Domain Type
276	Enforcement and avoided by defining access controls in terms of the access
277	modes already in use.
279	Smack Terminology
281	The jargon used to talk about Smack will be familiar to those who have dealt
282	with other MAC systems and shouldn't be too difficult for the uninitiated to
283	pick up. There are four terms that are used in a specific way and that are
284	especially important:
286		Subject: A subject is an active entity on the computer system.
287		On Smack a subject is a task, which is in turn the basic unit
288		of execution.
290		Object: An object is a passive entity on the computer system.
291		On Smack files of all types, IPC, and tasks can be objects.
293		Access: Any attempt by a subject to put information into or get
294		information from an object is an access.
296		Label: Data that identifies the Mandatory Access Control
297		characteristics of a subject or an object.
299	These definitions are consistent with the traditional use in the security
300	community. There are also some terms from Linux that are likely to crop up:
302		Capability: A task that possesses a capability has permission to
303		violate an aspect of the system security policy, as identified by
304		the specific capability. A task that possesses one or more
305		capabilities is a privileged task, whereas a task with no
306		capabilities is an unprivileged task.
308		Privilege: A task that is allowed to violate the system security
309		policy is said to have privilege. As of this writing a task can
310		have privilege either by possessing capabilities or by having an
311		effective user of root.
313	Smack Basics
315	Smack is an extension to a Linux system. It enforces additional restrictions
316	on what subjects can access which objects, based on the labels attached to
317	each of the subject and the object.
319	Labels
321	Smack labels are ASCII character strings, one to twenty-three characters in
322	length. Single character labels using special characters, that being anything
323	other than a letter or digit, are reserved for use by the Smack development
324	team. Smack labels are unstructured, case sensitive, and the only operation
325	ever performed on them is comparison for equality. Smack labels cannot
326	contain unprintable characters, the "/" (slash), the "\" (backslash), the "'"
327	(quote) and '"' (double-quote) characters.
328	Smack labels cannot begin with a '-'. This is reserved for special options.
330	There are some predefined labels:
332		_ 	Pronounced "floor", a single underscore character.
333		^ 	Pronounced "hat", a single circumflex character.
334		* 	Pronounced "star", a single asterisk character.
335		? 	Pronounced "huh", a single question mark character.
336		@ 	Pronounced "web", a single at sign character.
338	Every task on a Smack system is assigned a label. System tasks, such as
339	init(8) and systems daemons, are run with the floor ("_") label. User tasks
340	are assigned labels according to the specification found in the
341	/etc/smack/user configuration file.
343	Access Rules
345	Smack uses the traditional access modes of Linux. These modes are read,
346	execute, write, and occasionally append. There are a few cases where the
347	access mode may not be obvious. These include:
349		Signals: A signal is a write operation from the subject task to
350		the object task.
351		Internet Domain IPC: Transmission of a packet is considered a
352		write operation from the source task to the destination task.
354	Smack restricts access based on the label attached to a subject and the label
355	attached to the object it is trying to access. The rules enforced are, in
356	order:
358		1. Any access requested by a task labeled "*" is denied.
359		2. A read or execute access requested by a task labeled "^"
360		   is permitted.
361		3. A read or execute access requested on an object labeled "_"
362		   is permitted.
363		4. Any access requested on an object labeled "*" is permitted.
364		5. Any access requested by a task on an object with the same
365		   label is permitted.
366		6. Any access requested that is explicitly defined in the loaded
367		   rule set is permitted.
368		7. Any other access is denied.
370	Smack Access Rules
372	With the isolation provided by Smack access separation is simple. There are
373	many interesting cases where limited access by subjects to objects with
374	different labels is desired. One example is the familiar spy model of
375	sensitivity, where a scientist working on a highly classified project would be
376	able to read documents of lower classifications and anything she writes will
377	be "born" highly classified. To accommodate such schemes Smack includes a
378	mechanism for specifying rules allowing access between labels.
380	Access Rule Format
382	The format of an access rule is:
384		subject-label object-label access
386	Where subject-label is the Smack label of the task, object-label is the Smack
387	label of the thing being accessed, and access is a string specifying the sort
388	of access allowed. The access specification is searched for letters that
389	describe access modes:
391		a: indicates that append access should be granted.
392		r: indicates that read access should be granted.
393		w: indicates that write access should be granted.
394		x: indicates that execute access should be granted.
395		t: indicates that the rule requests transmutation.
397	Uppercase values for the specification letters are allowed as well.
398	Access mode specifications can be in any order. Examples of acceptable rules
399	are:
401		TopSecret Secret  rx
402		Secret    Unclass R
403		Manager   Game    x
404		User      HR      w
405		New       Old     rRrRr
406		Closed    Off     -
408	Examples of unacceptable rules are:
410		Top Secret Secret     rx
411		Ace        Ace        r
412		Odd        spells     waxbeans
414	Spaces are not allowed in labels. Since a subject always has access to files
415	with the same label specifying a rule for that case is pointless. Only
416	valid letters (rwxatRWXAT) and the dash ('-') character are allowed in
417	access specifications. The dash is a placeholder, so "a-r" is the same
418	as "ar". A lone dash is used to specify that no access should be allowed.
420	Applying Access Rules
422	The developers of Linux rarely define new sorts of things, usually importing
423	schemes and concepts from other systems. Most often, the other systems are
424	variants of Unix. Unix has many endearing properties, but consistency of
425	access control models is not one of them. Smack strives to treat accesses as
426	uniformly as is sensible while keeping with the spirit of the underlying
427	mechanism.
429	File system objects including files, directories, named pipes, symbolic links,
430	and devices require access permissions that closely match those used by mode
431	bit access. To open a file for reading read access is required on the file. To
432	search a directory requires execute access. Creating a file with write access
433	requires both read and write access on the containing directory. Deleting a
434	file requires read and write access to the file and to the containing
435	directory. It is possible that a user may be able to see that a file exists
436	but not any of its attributes by the circumstance of having read access to the
437	containing directory but not to the differently labeled file. This is an
438	artifact of the file name being data in the directory, not a part of the file.
440	If a directory is marked as transmuting (SMACK64TRANSMUTE=TRUE) and the
441	access rule that allows a process to create an object in that directory
442	includes 't' access the label assigned to the new object will be that
443	of the directory, not the creating process. This makes it much easier
444	for two processes with different labels to share data without granting
445	access to all of their files.
447	IPC objects, message queues, semaphore sets, and memory segments exist in flat
448	namespaces and access requests are only required to match the object in
449	question.
451	Process objects reflect tasks on the system and the Smack label used to access
452	them is the same Smack label that the task would use for its own access
453	attempts. Sending a signal via the kill() system call is a write operation
454	from the signaler to the recipient. Debugging a process requires both reading
455	and writing. Creating a new task is an internal operation that results in two
456	tasks with identical Smack labels and requires no access checks.
458	Sockets are data structures attached to processes and sending a packet from
459	one process to another requires that the sender have write access to the
460	receiver. The receiver is not required to have read access to the sender.
462	Setting Access Rules
464	The configuration file /etc/smack/accesses contains the rules to be set at
465	system startup. The contents are written to the special file /smack/load.
466	Rules can be written to /smack/load at any time and take effect immediately.
467	For any pair of subject and object labels there can be only one rule, with the
468	most recently specified overriding any earlier specification.
470	The program smackload is provided to ensure data is formatted
471	properly when written to /smack/load. This program reads lines
472	of the form
474	    subjectlabel objectlabel mode.
476	Task Attribute
478	The Smack label of a process can be read from /proc/<pid>/attr/current. A
479	process can read its own Smack label from /proc/self/attr/current. A
480	privileged process can change its own Smack label by writing to
481	/proc/self/attr/current but not the label of another process.
483	File Attribute
485	The Smack label of a filesystem object is stored as an extended attribute
486	named SMACK64 on the file. This attribute is in the security namespace. It can
487	only be changed by a process with privilege.
489	Privilege
491	A process with CAP_MAC_OVERRIDE is privileged.
493	Smack Networking
495	As mentioned before, Smack enforces access control on network protocol
496	transmissions. Every packet sent by a Smack process is tagged with its Smack
497	label. This is done by adding a CIPSO tag to the header of the IP packet. Each
498	packet received is expected to have a CIPSO tag that identifies the label and
499	if it lacks such a tag the network ambient label is assumed. Before the packet
500	is delivered a check is made to determine that a subject with the label on the
501	packet has write access to the receiving process and if that is not the case
502	the packet is dropped.
504	CIPSO Configuration
506	It is normally unnecessary to specify the CIPSO configuration. The default
507	values used by the system handle all internal cases. Smack will compose CIPSO
508	label values to match the Smack labels being used without administrative
509	intervention. Unlabeled packets that come into the system will be given the
510	ambient label.
512	Smack requires configuration in the case where packets from a system that is
513	not smack that speaks CIPSO may be encountered. Usually this will be a Trusted
514	Solaris system, but there are other, less widely deployed systems out there.
515	CIPSO provides 3 important values, a Domain Of Interpretation (DOI), a level,
516	and a category set with each packet. The DOI is intended to identify a group
517	of systems that use compatible labeling schemes, and the DOI specified on the
518	smack system must match that of the remote system or packets will be
519	discarded. The DOI is 3 by default. The value can be read from /smack/doi and
520	can be changed by writing to /smack/doi.
522	The label and category set are mapped to a Smack label as defined in
523	/etc/smack/cipso.
525	A Smack/CIPSO mapping has the form:
527		smack level [category [category]*]
529	Smack does not expect the level or category sets to be related in any
530	particular way and does not assume or assign accesses based on them. Some
531	examples of mappings:
533		TopSecret 7
534		TS:A,B    7 1 2
535		SecBDE    5 2 4 6
536		RAFTERS   7 12 26
538	The ":" and "," characters are permitted in a Smack label but have no special
539	meaning.
541	The mapping of Smack labels to CIPSO values is defined by writing to
542	/smack/cipso. Again, the format of data written to this special file
543	is highly restrictive, so the program smackcipso is provided to
544	ensure the writes are done properly. This program takes mappings
545	on the standard input and sends them to /smack/cipso properly.
547	In addition to explicit mappings Smack supports direct CIPSO mappings. One
548	CIPSO level is used to indicate that the category set passed in the packet is
549	in fact an encoding of the Smack label. The level used is 250 by default. The
550	value can be read from /smack/direct and changed by writing to /smack/direct.
552	Socket Attributes
554	There are two attributes that are associated with sockets. These attributes
555	can only be set by privileged tasks, but any task can read them for their own
556	sockets.
558		SMACK64IPIN: The Smack label of the task object. A privileged
559		program that will enforce policy may set this to the star label.
561		SMACK64IPOUT: The Smack label transmitted with outgoing packets.
562		A privileged program may set this to match the label of another
563		task with which it hopes to communicate.
565	Smack Netlabel Exceptions
567	You will often find that your labeled application has to talk to the outside,
568	unlabeled world. To do this there's a special file /smack/netlabel where you can
569	add some exceptions in the form of :
570	@IP1	   LABEL1 or
573	It means that your application will have unlabeled access to @IP1 if it has
574	write access on LABEL1, and access to the subnet @IP2/MASK if it has write
575	access on LABEL2.
577	Entries in the /smack/netlabel file are matched by longest mask first, like in
578	classless IPv4 routing.
580	A special label '@' and an option '-CIPSO' can be used there :
581	@      means Internet, any application with any label has access to it
582	-CIPSO means standard CIPSO networking
584	If you don't know what CIPSO is and don't plan to use it, you can just do :
585	echo -CIPSO > /smack/netlabel
586	echo @      > /smack/netlabel
588	If you use CIPSO on your local network and need also unlabeled
589	Internet access, you can have :
590	echo      -CIPSO > /smack/netlabel
591	echo -CIPSO > /smack/netlabel
592	echo      @      > /smack/netlabel
595	Writing Applications for Smack
597	There are three sorts of applications that will run on a Smack system. How an
598	application interacts with Smack will determine what it will have to do to
599	work properly under Smack.
601	Smack Ignorant Applications
603	By far the majority of applications have no reason whatever to care about the
604	unique properties of Smack. Since invoking a program has no impact on the
605	Smack label associated with the process the only concern likely to arise is
606	whether the process has execute access to the program.
608	Smack Relevant Applications
610	Some programs can be improved by teaching them about Smack, but do not make
611	any security decisions themselves. The utility ls(1) is one example of such a
612	program.
614	Smack Enforcing Applications
616	These are special programs that not only know about Smack, but participate in
617	the enforcement of system policy. In most cases these are the programs that
618	set up user sessions. There are also network services that provide information
619	to processes running with various labels.
621	File System Interfaces
623	Smack maintains labels on file system objects using extended attributes. The
624	Smack label of a file, directory, or other file system object can be obtained
625	using getxattr(2).
627		len = getxattr("/", "security.SMACK64", value, sizeof (value));
629	will put the Smack label of the root directory into value. A privileged
630	process can set the Smack label of a file system object with setxattr(2).
632		len = strlen("Rubble");
633		rc = setxattr("/foo", "security.SMACK64", "Rubble", len, 0);
635	will set the Smack label of /foo to "Rubble" if the program has appropriate
636	privilege.
638	Socket Interfaces
640	The socket attributes can be read using fgetxattr(2).
642	A privileged process can set the Smack label of outgoing packets with
643	fsetxattr(2).
645		len = strlen("Rubble");
646		rc = fsetxattr(fd, "security.SMACK64IPOUT", "Rubble", len, 0);
648	will set the Smack label "Rubble" on packets going out from the socket if the
649	program has appropriate privilege.
651		rc = fsetxattr(fd, "security.SMACK64IPIN, "*", strlen("*"), 0);
653	will set the Smack label "*" as the object label against which incoming
654	packets will be checked if the program has appropriate privilege.
656	Administration
658	Smack supports some mount options:
660		smackfsdef=label: specifies the label to give files that lack
661		the Smack label extended attribute.
663		smackfsroot=label: specifies the label to assign the root of the
664		file system if it lacks the Smack extended attribute.
666		smackfshat=label: specifies a label that must have read access to
667		all labels set on the filesystem. Not yet enforced.
669		smackfsfloor=label: specifies a label to which all labels set on the
670		filesystem must have read access. Not yet enforced.
672	These mount options apply to all file system types.
674	Smack auditing
676	If you want Smack auditing of security events, you need to set CONFIG_AUDIT
677	in your kernel configuration.
678	By default, all denied events will be audited. You can change this behavior by
679	writing a single character to the /smack/logging file :
680	0 : no logging
681	1 : log denied (default)
682	2 : log accepted
683	3 : log denied & accepted
685	Events are logged as 'key=value' pairs, for each event you at least will get
686	the subject, the object, the rights requested, the action, the kernel function
687	that triggered the event, plus other pairs depending on the type of event
688	audited.
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