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Documentation / security / keys-trusted-encrypted.txt




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Based on kernel version 3.13. Page generated on 2014-01-20 22:04 EST.

1				Trusted and Encrypted Keys
2	
3	Trusted and Encrypted Keys are two new key types added to the existing kernel
4	key ring service.  Both of these new types are variable length symmetric keys,
5	and in both cases all keys are created in the kernel, and user space sees,
6	stores, and loads only encrypted blobs.  Trusted Keys require the availability
7	of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) chip for greater security, while Encrypted
8	Keys can be used on any system.  All user level blobs, are displayed and loaded
9	in hex ascii for convenience, and are integrity verified.
10	
11	Trusted Keys use a TPM both to generate and to seal the keys.  Keys are sealed
12	under a 2048 bit RSA key in the TPM, and optionally sealed to specified PCR
13	(integrity measurement) values, and only unsealed by the TPM, if PCRs and blob
14	integrity verifications match.  A loaded Trusted Key can be updated with new
15	(future) PCR values, so keys are easily migrated to new pcr values, such as
16	when the kernel and initramfs are updated.  The same key can have many saved
17	blobs under different PCR values, so multiple boots are easily supported.
18	
19	By default, trusted keys are sealed under the SRK, which has the default
20	authorization value (20 zeros).  This can be set at takeownership time with the
21	trouser's utility: "tpm_takeownership -u -z".
22	
23	Usage:
24	    keyctl add trusted name "new keylen [options]" ring
25	    keyctl add trusted name "load hex_blob [pcrlock=pcrnum]" ring
26	    keyctl update key "update [options]"
27	    keyctl print keyid
28	
29	    options:
30	       keyhandle= ascii hex value of sealing key default 0x40000000 (SRK)
31	       keyauth=	  ascii hex auth for sealing key default 0x00...i
32			  (40 ascii zeros)
33	       blobauth=  ascii hex auth for sealed data default 0x00...
34			  (40 ascii zeros)
35	       blobauth=  ascii hex auth for sealed data default 0x00...
36			  (40 ascii zeros)
37	       pcrinfo=	  ascii hex of PCR_INFO or PCR_INFO_LONG (no default)
38	       pcrlock=	  pcr number to be extended to "lock" blob
39	       migratable= 0|1 indicating permission to reseal to new PCR values,
40	                   default 1 (resealing allowed)
41	
42	"keyctl print" returns an ascii hex copy of the sealed key, which is in standard
43	TPM_STORED_DATA format.  The key length for new keys are always in bytes.
44	Trusted Keys can be 32 - 128 bytes (256 - 1024 bits), the upper limit is to fit
45	within the 2048 bit SRK (RSA) keylength, with all necessary structure/padding.
46	
47	Encrypted keys do not depend on a TPM, and are faster, as they use AES for
48	encryption/decryption.  New keys are created from kernel generated random
49	numbers, and are encrypted/decrypted using a specified 'master' key.  The
50	'master' key can either be a trusted-key or user-key type.  The main
51	disadvantage of encrypted keys is that if they are not rooted in a trusted key,
52	they are only as secure as the user key encrypting them.  The master user key
53	should therefore be loaded in as secure a way as possible, preferably early in
54	boot.
55	
56	The decrypted portion of encrypted keys can contain either a simple symmetric
57	key or a more complex structure. The format of the more complex structure is
58	application specific, which is identified by 'format'.
59	
60	Usage:
61	    keyctl add encrypted name "new [format] key-type:master-key-name keylen"
62	        ring
63	    keyctl add encrypted name "load hex_blob" ring
64	    keyctl update keyid "update key-type:master-key-name"
65	
66	format:= 'default | ecryptfs'
67	key-type:= 'trusted' | 'user'
68	
69	
70	Examples of trusted and encrypted key usage:
71	
72	Create and save a trusted key named "kmk" of length 32 bytes:
73	
74	    $ keyctl add trusted kmk "new 32" @u
75	    440502848
76	
77	    $ keyctl show
78	    Session Keyring
79	           -3 --alswrv    500   500  keyring: _ses
80	     97833714 --alswrv    500    -1   \_ keyring: _uid.500
81	    440502848 --alswrv    500   500       \_ trusted: kmk
82	
83	    $ keyctl print 440502848
84	    0101000000000000000001005d01b7e3f4a6be5709930f3b70a743cbb42e0cc95e18e915
85	    3f60da455bbf1144ad12e4f92b452f966929f6105fd29ca28e4d4d5a031d068478bacb0b
86	    27351119f822911b0a11ba3d3498ba6a32e50dac7f32894dd890eb9ad578e4e292c83722
87	    a52e56a097e6a68b3f56f7a52ece0cdccba1eb62cad7d817f6dc58898b3ac15f36026fec
88	    d568bd4a706cb60bb37be6d8f1240661199d640b66fb0fe3b079f97f450b9ef9c22c6d5d
89	    dd379f0facd1cd020281dfa3c70ba21a3fa6fc2471dc6d13ecf8298b946f65345faa5ef0
90	    f1f8fff03ad0acb083725535636addb08d73dedb9832da198081e5deae84bfaf0409c22b
91	    e4a8aea2b607ec96931e6f4d4fe563ba
92	
93	    $ keyctl pipe 440502848 > kmk.blob
94	
95	Load a trusted key from the saved blob:
96	
97	    $ keyctl add trusted kmk "load `cat kmk.blob`" @u
98	    268728824
99	
100	    $ keyctl print 268728824
101	    0101000000000000000001005d01b7e3f4a6be5709930f3b70a743cbb42e0cc95e18e915
102	    3f60da455bbf1144ad12e4f92b452f966929f6105fd29ca28e4d4d5a031d068478bacb0b
103	    27351119f822911b0a11ba3d3498ba6a32e50dac7f32894dd890eb9ad578e4e292c83722
104	    a52e56a097e6a68b3f56f7a52ece0cdccba1eb62cad7d817f6dc58898b3ac15f36026fec
105	    d568bd4a706cb60bb37be6d8f1240661199d640b66fb0fe3b079f97f450b9ef9c22c6d5d
106	    dd379f0facd1cd020281dfa3c70ba21a3fa6fc2471dc6d13ecf8298b946f65345faa5ef0
107	    f1f8fff03ad0acb083725535636addb08d73dedb9832da198081e5deae84bfaf0409c22b
108	    e4a8aea2b607ec96931e6f4d4fe563ba
109	
110	Reseal a trusted key under new pcr values:
111	
112	    $ keyctl update 268728824 "update pcrinfo=`cat pcr.blob`"
113	    $ keyctl print 268728824
114	    010100000000002c0002800093c35a09b70fff26e7a98ae786c641e678ec6ffb6b46d805
115	    77c8a6377aed9d3219c6dfec4b23ffe3000001005d37d472ac8a44023fbb3d18583a4f73
116	    d3a076c0858f6f1dcaa39ea0f119911ff03f5406df4f7f27f41da8d7194f45c9f4e00f2e
117	    df449f266253aa3f52e55c53de147773e00f0f9aca86c64d94c95382265968c354c5eab4
118	    9638c5ae99c89de1e0997242edfb0b501744e11ff9762dfd951cffd93227cc513384e7e6
119	    e782c29435c7ec2edafaa2f4c1fe6e7a781b59549ff5296371b42133777dcc5b8b971610
120	    94bc67ede19e43ddb9dc2baacad374a36feaf0314d700af0a65c164b7082401740e489c9
121	    7ef6a24defe4846104209bf0c3eced7fa1a672ed5b125fc9d8cd88b476a658a4434644ef
122	    df8ae9a178e9f83ba9f08d10fa47e4226b98b0702f06b3b8
123	
124	The initial consumer of trusted keys is EVM, which at boot time needs a high
125	quality symmetric key for HMAC protection of file metadata.  The use of a
126	trusted key provides strong guarantees that the EVM key has not been
127	compromised by a user level problem, and when sealed to specific boot PCR
128	values, protects against boot and offline attacks.  Create and save an
129	encrypted key "evm" using the above trusted key "kmk":
130	
131	option 1: omitting 'format'
132	    $ keyctl add encrypted evm "new trusted:kmk 32" @u
133	    159771175
134	
135	option 2: explicitly defining 'format' as 'default'
136	    $ keyctl add encrypted evm "new default trusted:kmk 32" @u
137	    159771175
138	
139	    $ keyctl print 159771175
140	    default trusted:kmk 32 2375725ad57798846a9bbd240de8906f006e66c03af53b1b3
141	    82dbbc55be2a44616e4959430436dc4f2a7a9659aa60bb4652aeb2120f149ed197c564e0
142	    24717c64 5972dcb82ab2dde83376d82b2e3c09ffc
143	
144	    $ keyctl pipe 159771175 > evm.blob
145	
146	Load an encrypted key "evm" from saved blob:
147	
148	    $ keyctl add encrypted evm "load `cat evm.blob`" @u
149	    831684262
150	
151	    $ keyctl print 831684262
152	    default trusted:kmk 32 2375725ad57798846a9bbd240de8906f006e66c03af53b1b3
153	    82dbbc55be2a44616e4959430436dc4f2a7a9659aa60bb4652aeb2120f149ed197c564e0
154	    24717c64 5972dcb82ab2dde83376d82b2e3c09ffc
155	
156	Other uses for trusted and encrypted keys, such as for disk and file encryption
157	are anticipated.  In particular the new format 'ecryptfs' has been defined in
158	in order to use encrypted keys to mount an eCryptfs filesystem.  More details
159	about the usage can be found in the file
160	'Documentation/security/keys-ecryptfs.txt'.
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