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Based on kernel version 4.13.3. Page generated on 2017-09-23 13:55 EST.

1	============================================
2	Dynamic DMA mapping using the generic device
3	============================================
5	:Author: James E.J. Bottomley <James.Bottomley@HansenPartnership.com>
7	This document describes the DMA API.  For a more gentle introduction
8	of the API (and actual examples), see Documentation/DMA-API-HOWTO.txt.
10	This API is split into two pieces.  Part I describes the basic API.
11	Part II describes extensions for supporting non-consistent memory
12	machines.  Unless you know that your driver absolutely has to support
13	non-consistent platforms (this is usually only legacy platforms) you
14	should only use the API described in part I.
16	Part I - dma_API
17	----------------
19	To get the dma_API, you must #include <linux/dma-mapping.h>.  This
20	provides dma_addr_t and the interfaces described below.
22	A dma_addr_t can hold any valid DMA address for the platform.  It can be
23	given to a device to use as a DMA source or target.  A CPU cannot reference
24	a dma_addr_t directly because there may be translation between its physical
25	address space and the DMA address space.
27	Part Ia - Using large DMA-coherent buffers
28	------------------------------------------
30	::
32		void *
33		dma_alloc_coherent(struct device *dev, size_t size,
34				   dma_addr_t *dma_handle, gfp_t flag)
36	Consistent memory is memory for which a write by either the device or
37	the processor can immediately be read by the processor or device
38	without having to worry about caching effects.  (You may however need
39	to make sure to flush the processor's write buffers before telling
40	devices to read that memory.)
42	This routine allocates a region of <size> bytes of consistent memory.
44	It returns a pointer to the allocated region (in the processor's virtual
45	address space) or NULL if the allocation failed.
47	It also returns a <dma_handle> which may be cast to an unsigned integer the
48	same width as the bus and given to the device as the DMA address base of
49	the region.
51	Note: consistent memory can be expensive on some platforms, and the
52	minimum allocation length may be as big as a page, so you should
53	consolidate your requests for consistent memory as much as possible.
54	The simplest way to do that is to use the dma_pool calls (see below).
56	The flag parameter (dma_alloc_coherent() only) allows the caller to
57	specify the ``GFP_`` flags (see kmalloc()) for the allocation (the
58	implementation may choose to ignore flags that affect the location of
59	the returned memory, like GFP_DMA).
61	::
63		void *
64		dma_zalloc_coherent(struct device *dev, size_t size,
65				    dma_addr_t *dma_handle, gfp_t flag)
67	Wraps dma_alloc_coherent() and also zeroes the returned memory if the
68	allocation attempt succeeded.
70	::
72		void
73		dma_free_coherent(struct device *dev, size_t size, void *cpu_addr,
74				  dma_addr_t dma_handle)
76	Free a region of consistent memory you previously allocated.  dev,
77	size and dma_handle must all be the same as those passed into
78	dma_alloc_coherent().  cpu_addr must be the virtual address returned by
79	the dma_alloc_coherent().
81	Note that unlike their sibling allocation calls, these routines
82	may only be called with IRQs enabled.
85	Part Ib - Using small DMA-coherent buffers
86	------------------------------------------
88	To get this part of the dma_API, you must #include <linux/dmapool.h>
90	Many drivers need lots of small DMA-coherent memory regions for DMA
91	descriptors or I/O buffers.  Rather than allocating in units of a page
92	or more using dma_alloc_coherent(), you can use DMA pools.  These work
93	much like a struct kmem_cache, except that they use the DMA-coherent allocator,
94	not __get_free_pages().  Also, they understand common hardware constraints
95	for alignment, like queue heads needing to be aligned on N-byte boundaries.
98	::
100		struct dma_pool *
101		dma_pool_create(const char *name, struct device *dev,
102				size_t size, size_t align, size_t alloc);
104	dma_pool_create() initializes a pool of DMA-coherent buffers
105	for use with a given device.  It must be called in a context which
106	can sleep.
108	The "name" is for diagnostics (like a struct kmem_cache name); dev and size
109	are like what you'd pass to dma_alloc_coherent().  The device's hardware
110	alignment requirement for this type of data is "align" (which is expressed
111	in bytes, and must be a power of two).  If your device has no boundary
112	crossing restrictions, pass 0 for alloc; passing 4096 says memory allocated
113	from this pool must not cross 4KByte boundaries.
115	::
117		void *
118		dma_pool_zalloc(struct dma_pool *pool, gfp_t mem_flags,
119			        dma_addr_t *handle)
121	Wraps dma_pool_alloc() and also zeroes the returned memory if the
122	allocation attempt succeeded.
125	::
127		void *
128		dma_pool_alloc(struct dma_pool *pool, gfp_t gfp_flags,
129			       dma_addr_t *dma_handle);
131	This allocates memory from the pool; the returned memory will meet the
132	size and alignment requirements specified at creation time.  Pass
133	GFP_ATOMIC to prevent blocking, or if it's permitted (not
134	in_interrupt, not holding SMP locks), pass GFP_KERNEL to allow
135	blocking.  Like dma_alloc_coherent(), this returns two values:  an
136	address usable by the CPU, and the DMA address usable by the pool's
137	device.
139	::
141		void
142		dma_pool_free(struct dma_pool *pool, void *vaddr,
143			      dma_addr_t addr);
145	This puts memory back into the pool.  The pool is what was passed to
146	dma_pool_alloc(); the CPU (vaddr) and DMA addresses are what
147	were returned when that routine allocated the memory being freed.
149	::
151		void
152		dma_pool_destroy(struct dma_pool *pool);
154	dma_pool_destroy() frees the resources of the pool.  It must be
155	called in a context which can sleep.  Make sure you've freed all allocated
156	memory back to the pool before you destroy it.
159	Part Ic - DMA addressing limitations
160	------------------------------------
162	::
164		int
165		dma_set_mask_and_coherent(struct device *dev, u64 mask)
167	Checks to see if the mask is possible and updates the device
168	streaming and coherent DMA mask parameters if it is.
170	Returns: 0 if successful and a negative error if not.
172	::
174		int
175		dma_set_mask(struct device *dev, u64 mask)
177	Checks to see if the mask is possible and updates the device
178	parameters if it is.
180	Returns: 0 if successful and a negative error if not.
182	::
184		int
185		dma_set_coherent_mask(struct device *dev, u64 mask)
187	Checks to see if the mask is possible and updates the device
188	parameters if it is.
190	Returns: 0 if successful and a negative error if not.
192	::
194		u64
195		dma_get_required_mask(struct device *dev)
197	This API returns the mask that the platform requires to
198	operate efficiently.  Usually this means the returned mask
199	is the minimum required to cover all of memory.  Examining the
200	required mask gives drivers with variable descriptor sizes the
201	opportunity to use smaller descriptors as necessary.
203	Requesting the required mask does not alter the current mask.  If you
204	wish to take advantage of it, you should issue a dma_set_mask()
205	call to set the mask to the value returned.
208	Part Id - Streaming DMA mappings
209	--------------------------------
211	::
213		dma_addr_t
214		dma_map_single(struct device *dev, void *cpu_addr, size_t size,
215			       enum dma_data_direction direction)
217	Maps a piece of processor virtual memory so it can be accessed by the
218	device and returns the DMA address of the memory.
220	The direction for both APIs may be converted freely by casting.
221	However the dma_API uses a strongly typed enumerator for its
222	direction:
224	======================= =============================================
225	DMA_NONE		no direction (used for debugging)
226	DMA_TO_DEVICE		data is going from the memory to the device
227	DMA_FROM_DEVICE		data is coming from the device to the memory
228	DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL	direction isn't known
229	======================= =============================================
231	.. note::
233		Not all memory regions in a machine can be mapped by this API.
234		Further, contiguous kernel virtual space may not be contiguous as
235		physical memory.  Since this API does not provide any scatter/gather
236		capability, it will fail if the user tries to map a non-physically
237		contiguous piece of memory.  For this reason, memory to be mapped by
238		this API should be obtained from sources which guarantee it to be
239		physically contiguous (like kmalloc).
241		Further, the DMA address of the memory must be within the
242		dma_mask of the device (the dma_mask is a bit mask of the
243		addressable region for the device, i.e., if the DMA address of
244		the memory ANDed with the dma_mask is still equal to the DMA
245		address, then the device can perform DMA to the memory).  To
246		ensure that the memory allocated by kmalloc is within the dma_mask,
247		the driver may specify various platform-dependent flags to restrict
248		the DMA address range of the allocation (e.g., on x86, GFP_DMA
249		guarantees to be within the first 16MB of available DMA addresses,
250		as required by ISA devices).
252		Note also that the above constraints on physical contiguity and
253		dma_mask may not apply if the platform has an IOMMU (a device which
254		maps an I/O DMA address to a physical memory address).  However, to be
255		portable, device driver writers may *not* assume that such an IOMMU
256		exists.
258	.. warning::
260		Memory coherency operates at a granularity called the cache
261		line width.  In order for memory mapped by this API to operate
262		correctly, the mapped region must begin exactly on a cache line
263		boundary and end exactly on one (to prevent two separately mapped
264		regions from sharing a single cache line).  Since the cache line size
265		may not be known at compile time, the API will not enforce this
266		requirement.  Therefore, it is recommended that driver writers who
267		don't take special care to determine the cache line size at run time
268		only map virtual regions that begin and end on page boundaries (which
269		are guaranteed also to be cache line boundaries).
271		DMA_TO_DEVICE synchronisation must be done after the last modification
272		of the memory region by the software and before it is handed off to
273		the device.  Once this primitive is used, memory covered by this
274		primitive should be treated as read-only by the device.  If the device
275		may write to it at any point, it should be DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL (see
276		below).
278		DMA_FROM_DEVICE synchronisation must be done before the driver
279		accesses data that may be changed by the device.  This memory should
280		be treated as read-only by the driver.  If the driver needs to write
281		to it at any point, it should be DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL (see below).
283		DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL requires special handling: it means that the driver
284		isn't sure if the memory was modified before being handed off to the
285		device and also isn't sure if the device will also modify it.  Thus,
286		you must always sync bidirectional memory twice: once before the
287		memory is handed off to the device (to make sure all memory changes
288		are flushed from the processor) and once before the data may be
289		accessed after being used by the device (to make sure any processor
290		cache lines are updated with data that the device may have changed).
292	::
294		void
295		dma_unmap_single(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_addr, size_t size,
296				 enum dma_data_direction direction)
298	Unmaps the region previously mapped.  All the parameters passed in
299	must be identical to those passed in (and returned) by the mapping
300	API.
302	::
304		dma_addr_t
305		dma_map_page(struct device *dev, struct page *page,
306			     unsigned long offset, size_t size,
307			     enum dma_data_direction direction)
309		void
310		dma_unmap_page(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_address, size_t size,
311			       enum dma_data_direction direction)
313	API for mapping and unmapping for pages.  All the notes and warnings
314	for the other mapping APIs apply here.  Also, although the <offset>
315	and <size> parameters are provided to do partial page mapping, it is
316	recommended that you never use these unless you really know what the
317	cache width is.
319	::
321		dma_addr_t
322		dma_map_resource(struct device *dev, phys_addr_t phys_addr, size_t size,
323				 enum dma_data_direction dir, unsigned long attrs)
325		void
326		dma_unmap_resource(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t addr, size_t size,
327				   enum dma_data_direction dir, unsigned long attrs)
329	API for mapping and unmapping for MMIO resources. All the notes and
330	warnings for the other mapping APIs apply here. The API should only be
331	used to map device MMIO resources, mapping of RAM is not permitted.
333	::
335		int
336		dma_mapping_error(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_addr)
338	In some circumstances dma_map_single(), dma_map_page() and dma_map_resource()
339	will fail to create a mapping. A driver can check for these errors by testing
340	the returned DMA address with dma_mapping_error(). A non-zero return value
341	means the mapping could not be created and the driver should take appropriate
342	action (e.g. reduce current DMA mapping usage or delay and try again later).
344	::
346		int
347		dma_map_sg(struct device *dev, struct scatterlist *sg,
348			   int nents, enum dma_data_direction direction)
350	Returns: the number of DMA address segments mapped (this may be shorter
351	than <nents> passed in if some elements of the scatter/gather list are
352	physically or virtually adjacent and an IOMMU maps them with a single
353	entry).
355	Please note that the sg cannot be mapped again if it has been mapped once.
356	The mapping process is allowed to destroy information in the sg.
358	As with the other mapping interfaces, dma_map_sg() can fail. When it
359	does, 0 is returned and a driver must take appropriate action. It is
360	critical that the driver do something, in the case of a block driver
361	aborting the request or even oopsing is better than doing nothing and
362	corrupting the filesystem.
364	With scatterlists, you use the resulting mapping like this::
366		int i, count = dma_map_sg(dev, sglist, nents, direction);
367		struct scatterlist *sg;
369		for_each_sg(sglist, sg, count, i) {
370			hw_address[i] = sg_dma_address(sg);
371			hw_len[i] = sg_dma_len(sg);
372		}
374	where nents is the number of entries in the sglist.
376	The implementation is free to merge several consecutive sglist entries
377	into one (e.g. with an IOMMU, or if several pages just happen to be
378	physically contiguous) and returns the actual number of sg entries it
379	mapped them to. On failure 0, is returned.
381	Then you should loop count times (note: this can be less than nents times)
382	and use sg_dma_address() and sg_dma_len() macros where you previously
383	accessed sg->address and sg->length as shown above.
385	::
387		void
388		dma_unmap_sg(struct device *dev, struct scatterlist *sg,
389			     int nents, enum dma_data_direction direction)
391	Unmap the previously mapped scatter/gather list.  All the parameters
392	must be the same as those and passed in to the scatter/gather mapping
393	API.
395	Note: <nents> must be the number you passed in, *not* the number of
396	DMA address entries returned.
398	::
400		void
401		dma_sync_single_for_cpu(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_handle,
402					size_t size,
403					enum dma_data_direction direction)
405		void
406		dma_sync_single_for_device(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_handle,
407					   size_t size,
408					   enum dma_data_direction direction)
410		void
411		dma_sync_sg_for_cpu(struct device *dev, struct scatterlist *sg,
412				    int nents,
413				    enum dma_data_direction direction)
415		void
416		dma_sync_sg_for_device(struct device *dev, struct scatterlist *sg,
417				       int nents,
418				       enum dma_data_direction direction)
420	Synchronise a single contiguous or scatter/gather mapping for the CPU
421	and device. With the sync_sg API, all the parameters must be the same
422	as those passed into the single mapping API. With the sync_single API,
423	you can use dma_handle and size parameters that aren't identical to
424	those passed into the single mapping API to do a partial sync.
427	.. note::
429	   You must do this:
431	   - Before reading values that have been written by DMA from the device
432	     (use the DMA_FROM_DEVICE direction)
433	   - After writing values that will be written to the device using DMA
434	     (use the DMA_TO_DEVICE) direction
435	   - before *and* after handing memory to the device if the memory is
438	See also dma_map_single().
440	::
442		dma_addr_t
443		dma_map_single_attrs(struct device *dev, void *cpu_addr, size_t size,
444				     enum dma_data_direction dir,
445				     unsigned long attrs)
447		void
448		dma_unmap_single_attrs(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_addr,
449				       size_t size, enum dma_data_direction dir,
450				       unsigned long attrs)
452		int
453		dma_map_sg_attrs(struct device *dev, struct scatterlist *sgl,
454				 int nents, enum dma_data_direction dir,
455				 unsigned long attrs)
457		void
458		dma_unmap_sg_attrs(struct device *dev, struct scatterlist *sgl,
459				   int nents, enum dma_data_direction dir,
460				   unsigned long attrs)
462	The four functions above are just like the counterpart functions
463	without the _attrs suffixes, except that they pass an optional
464	dma_attrs.
466	The interpretation of DMA attributes is architecture-specific, and
467	each attribute should be documented in Documentation/DMA-attributes.txt.
469	If dma_attrs are 0, the semantics of each of these functions
470	is identical to those of the corresponding function
471	without the _attrs suffix. As a result dma_map_single_attrs()
472	can generally replace dma_map_single(), etc.
474	As an example of the use of the ``*_attrs`` functions, here's how
475	you could pass an attribute DMA_ATTR_FOO when mapping memory
476	for DMA::
478		#include <linux/dma-mapping.h>
479		/* DMA_ATTR_FOO should be defined in linux/dma-mapping.h and
480		* documented in Documentation/DMA-attributes.txt */
481		...
483			unsigned long attr;
484			attr |= DMA_ATTR_FOO;
485			....
486			n = dma_map_sg_attrs(dev, sg, nents, DMA_TO_DEVICE, attr);
487			....
489	Architectures that care about DMA_ATTR_FOO would check for its
490	presence in their implementations of the mapping and unmapping
491	routines, e.g.:::
493		void whizco_dma_map_sg_attrs(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_addr,
494					     size_t size, enum dma_data_direction dir,
495					     unsigned long attrs)
496		{
497			....
498			if (attrs & DMA_ATTR_FOO)
499				/* twizzle the frobnozzle */
500			....
501		}
504	Part II - Advanced dma usage
505	----------------------------
507	Warning: These pieces of the DMA API should not be used in the
508	majority of cases, since they cater for unlikely corner cases that
509	don't belong in usual drivers.
511	If you don't understand how cache line coherency works between a
512	processor and an I/O device, you should not be using this part of the
513	API at all.
515	::
517		void *
518		dma_alloc_noncoherent(struct device *dev, size_t size,
519				      dma_addr_t *dma_handle, gfp_t flag)
521	Identical to dma_alloc_coherent() except that the platform will
522	choose to return either consistent or non-consistent memory as it sees
523	fit.  By using this API, you are guaranteeing to the platform that you
524	have all the correct and necessary sync points for this memory in the
525	driver should it choose to return non-consistent memory.
527	Note: where the platform can return consistent memory, it will
528	guarantee that the sync points become nops.
530	Warning:  Handling non-consistent memory is a real pain.  You should
531	only use this API if you positively know your driver will be
532	required to work on one of the rare (usually non-PCI) architectures
533	that simply cannot make consistent memory.
535	::
537		void
538		dma_free_noncoherent(struct device *dev, size_t size, void *cpu_addr,
539				     dma_addr_t dma_handle)
541	Free memory allocated by the nonconsistent API.  All parameters must
542	be identical to those passed in (and returned by
543	dma_alloc_noncoherent()).
545	::
547		int
548		dma_get_cache_alignment(void)
550	Returns the processor cache alignment.  This is the absolute minimum
551	alignment *and* width that you must observe when either mapping
552	memory or doing partial flushes.
554	.. note::
556		This API may return a number *larger* than the actual cache
557		line, but it will guarantee that one or more cache lines fit exactly
558		into the width returned by this call.  It will also always be a power
559		of two for easy alignment.
561	::
563		void
564		dma_cache_sync(struct device *dev, void *vaddr, size_t size,
565			       enum dma_data_direction direction)
567	Do a partial sync of memory that was allocated by
568	dma_alloc_noncoherent(), starting at virtual address vaddr and
569	continuing on for size.  Again, you *must* observe the cache line
570	boundaries when doing this.
572	::
574		int
575		dma_declare_coherent_memory(struct device *dev, phys_addr_t phys_addr,
576					    dma_addr_t device_addr, size_t size, int
577					    flags)
579	Declare region of memory to be handed out by dma_alloc_coherent() when
580	it's asked for coherent memory for this device.
582	phys_addr is the CPU physical address to which the memory is currently
583	assigned (this will be ioremapped so the CPU can access the region).
585	device_addr is the DMA address the device needs to be programmed
586	with to actually address this memory (this will be handed out as the
587	dma_addr_t in dma_alloc_coherent()).
589	size is the size of the area (must be multiples of PAGE_SIZE).
591	flags can be ORed together and are:
593	- DMA_MEMORY_MAP - request that the memory returned from
594	  dma_alloc_coherent() be directly writable.
596	- DMA_MEMORY_IO - request that the memory returned from
597	  dma_alloc_coherent() be addressable using read()/write()/memcpy_toio() etc.
599	One or both of these flags must be present.
601	- DMA_MEMORY_INCLUDES_CHILDREN - make the declared memory be allocated by
602	  dma_alloc_coherent of any child devices of this one (for memory residing
603	  on a bridge).
605	- DMA_MEMORY_EXCLUSIVE - only allocate memory from the declared regions.
606	  Do not allow dma_alloc_coherent() to fall back to system memory when
607	  it's out of memory in the declared region.
609	The return value will be either DMA_MEMORY_MAP or DMA_MEMORY_IO and
610	must correspond to a passed in flag (i.e. no returning DMA_MEMORY_IO
611	if only DMA_MEMORY_MAP were passed in) for success or zero for
612	failure.
614	Note, for DMA_MEMORY_IO returns, all subsequent memory returned by
615	dma_alloc_coherent() may no longer be accessed directly, but instead
616	must be accessed using the correct bus functions.  If your driver
617	isn't prepared to handle this contingency, it should not specify
618	DMA_MEMORY_IO in the input flags.
620	As a simplification for the platforms, only **one** such region of
621	memory may be declared per device.
623	For reasons of efficiency, most platforms choose to track the declared
624	region only at the granularity of a page.  For smaller allocations,
625	you should use the dma_pool() API.
627	::
629		void
630		dma_release_declared_memory(struct device *dev)
632	Remove the memory region previously declared from the system.  This
633	API performs *no* in-use checking for this region and will return
634	unconditionally having removed all the required structures.  It is the
635	driver's job to ensure that no parts of this memory region are
636	currently in use.
638	::
640		void *
641		dma_mark_declared_memory_occupied(struct device *dev,
642						  dma_addr_t device_addr, size_t size)
644	This is used to occupy specific regions of the declared space
645	(dma_alloc_coherent() will hand out the first free region it finds).
647	device_addr is the *device* address of the region requested.
649	size is the size (and should be a page-sized multiple).
651	The return value will be either a pointer to the processor virtual
652	address of the memory, or an error (via PTR_ERR()) if any part of the
653	region is occupied.
655	Part III - Debug drivers use of the DMA-API
656	-------------------------------------------
658	The DMA-API as described above has some constraints. DMA addresses must be
659	released with the corresponding function with the same size for example. With
660	the advent of hardware IOMMUs it becomes more and more important that drivers
661	do not violate those constraints. In the worst case such a violation can
662	result in data corruption up to destroyed filesystems.
664	To debug drivers and find bugs in the usage of the DMA-API checking code can
665	be compiled into the kernel which will tell the developer about those
666	violations. If your architecture supports it you can select the "Enable
667	debugging of DMA-API usage" option in your kernel configuration. Enabling this
668	option has a performance impact. Do not enable it in production kernels.
670	If you boot the resulting kernel will contain code which does some bookkeeping
671	about what DMA memory was allocated for which device. If this code detects an
672	error it prints a warning message with some details into your kernel log. An
673	example warning message may look like this::
675		WARNING: at /data2/repos/linux-2.6-iommu/lib/dma-debug.c:448
676			check_unmap+0x203/0x490()
677		Hardware name:
678		forcedeth 0000:00:08.0: DMA-API: device driver frees DMA memory with wrong
679			function [device address=0x00000000640444be] [size=66 bytes] [mapped as
680		single] [unmapped as page]
681		Modules linked in: nfsd exportfs bridge stp llc r8169
682		Pid: 0, comm: swapper Tainted: G        W  2.6.28-dmatest-09289-g8bb99c0 #1
683		Call Trace:
684		<IRQ>  [<ffffffff80240b22>] warn_slowpath+0xf2/0x130
685		[<ffffffff80647b70>] _spin_unlock+0x10/0x30
686		[<ffffffff80537e75>] usb_hcd_link_urb_to_ep+0x75/0xc0
687		[<ffffffff80647c22>] _spin_unlock_irqrestore+0x12/0x40
688		[<ffffffff8055347f>] ohci_urb_enqueue+0x19f/0x7c0
689		[<ffffffff80252f96>] queue_work+0x56/0x60
690		[<ffffffff80237e10>] enqueue_task_fair+0x20/0x50
691		[<ffffffff80539279>] usb_hcd_submit_urb+0x379/0xbc0
692		[<ffffffff803b78c3>] cpumask_next_and+0x23/0x40
693		[<ffffffff80235177>] find_busiest_group+0x207/0x8a0
694		[<ffffffff8064784f>] _spin_lock_irqsave+0x1f/0x50
695		[<ffffffff803c7ea3>] check_unmap+0x203/0x490
696		[<ffffffff803c8259>] debug_dma_unmap_page+0x49/0x50
697		[<ffffffff80485f26>] nv_tx_done_optimized+0xc6/0x2c0
698		[<ffffffff80486c13>] nv_nic_irq_optimized+0x73/0x2b0
699		[<ffffffff8026df84>] handle_IRQ_event+0x34/0x70
700		[<ffffffff8026ffe9>] handle_edge_irq+0xc9/0x150
701		[<ffffffff8020e3ab>] do_IRQ+0xcb/0x1c0
702		[<ffffffff8020c093>] ret_from_intr+0x0/0xa
703		<EOI> <4>---[ end trace f6435a98e2a38c0e ]---
705	The driver developer can find the driver and the device including a stacktrace
706	of the DMA-API call which caused this warning.
708	Per default only the first error will result in a warning message. All other
709	errors will only silently counted. This limitation exist to prevent the code
710	from flooding your kernel log. To support debugging a device driver this can
711	be disabled via debugfs. See the debugfs interface documentation below for
712	details.
714	The debugfs directory for the DMA-API debugging code is called dma-api/. In
715	this directory the following files can currently be found:
717	=============================== ===============================================
718	dma-api/all_errors		This file contains a numeric value. If this
719					value is not equal to zero the debugging code
720					will print a warning for every error it finds
721					into the kernel log. Be careful with this
722					option, as it can easily flood your logs.
724	dma-api/disabled		This read-only file contains the character 'Y'
725					if the debugging code is disabled. This can
726					happen when it runs out of memory or if it was
727					disabled at boot time
729	dma-api/error_count		This file is read-only and shows the total
730					numbers of errors found.
732	dma-api/num_errors		The number in this file shows how many
733					warnings will be printed to the kernel log
734					before it stops. This number is initialized to
735					one at system boot and be set by writing into
736					this file
738	dma-api/min_free_entries	This read-only file can be read to get the
739					minimum number of free dma_debug_entries the
740					allocator has ever seen. If this value goes
741					down to zero the code will disable itself
742					because it is not longer reliable.
744	dma-api/num_free_entries	The current number of free dma_debug_entries
745					in the allocator.
747	dma-api/driver-filter		You can write a name of a driver into this file
748					to limit the debug output to requests from that
749					particular driver. Write an empty string to
750					that file to disable the filter and see
751					all errors again.
752	=============================== ===============================================
754	If you have this code compiled into your kernel it will be enabled by default.
755	If you want to boot without the bookkeeping anyway you can provide
756	'dma_debug=off' as a boot parameter. This will disable DMA-API debugging.
757	Notice that you can not enable it again at runtime. You have to reboot to do
758	so.
760	If you want to see debug messages only for a special device driver you can
761	specify the dma_debug_driver=<drivername> parameter. This will enable the
762	driver filter at boot time. The debug code will only print errors for that
763	driver afterwards. This filter can be disabled or changed later using debugfs.
765	When the code disables itself at runtime this is most likely because it ran
766	out of dma_debug_entries. These entries are preallocated at boot. The number
767	of preallocated entries is defined per architecture. If it is too low for you
768	boot with 'dma_debug_entries=<your_desired_number>' to overwrite the
769	architectural default.
771	::
773		void
774		debug_dma_mapping_error(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_addr);
776	dma-debug interface debug_dma_mapping_error() to debug drivers that fail
777	to check DMA mapping errors on addresses returned by dma_map_single() and
778	dma_map_page() interfaces. This interface clears a flag set by
779	debug_dma_map_page() to indicate that dma_mapping_error() has been called by
780	the driver. When driver does unmap, debug_dma_unmap() checks the flag and if
781	this flag is still set, prints warning message that includes call trace that
782	leads up to the unmap. This interface can be called from dma_mapping_error()
783	routines to enable DMA mapping error check debugging.
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