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Based on kernel version 4.9. Page generated on 2016-12-21 14:37 EST.

2	=========================
4	Linux runs on a wide variety of architectures which have varying behaviour
5	when it comes to memory access. This document presents some details about
6	unaligned accesses, why you need to write code that doesn't cause them,
7	and how to write such code!
10	The definition of an unaligned access
11	=====================================
13	Unaligned memory accesses occur when you try to read N bytes of data starting
14	from an address that is not evenly divisible by N (i.e. addr % N != 0).
15	For example, reading 4 bytes of data from address 0x10004 is fine, but
16	reading 4 bytes of data from address 0x10005 would be an unaligned memory
17	access.
19	The above may seem a little vague, as memory access can happen in different
20	ways. The context here is at the machine code level: certain instructions read
21	or write a number of bytes to or from memory (e.g. movb, movw, movl in x86
22	assembly). As will become clear, it is relatively easy to spot C statements
23	which will compile to multiple-byte memory access instructions, namely when
24	dealing with types such as u16, u32 and u64.
27	Natural alignment
28	=================
30	The rule mentioned above forms what we refer to as natural alignment:
31	When accessing N bytes of memory, the base memory address must be evenly
32	divisible by N, i.e. addr % N == 0.
34	When writing code, assume the target architecture has natural alignment
35	requirements.
37	In reality, only a few architectures require natural alignment on all sizes
38	of memory access. However, we must consider ALL supported architectures;
39	writing code that satisfies natural alignment requirements is the easiest way
40	to achieve full portability.
43	Why unaligned access is bad
44	===========================
46	The effects of performing an unaligned memory access vary from architecture
47	to architecture. It would be easy to write a whole document on the differences
48	here; a summary of the common scenarios is presented below:
50	 - Some architectures are able to perform unaligned memory accesses
51	   transparently, but there is usually a significant performance cost.
52	 - Some architectures raise processor exceptions when unaligned accesses
53	   happen. The exception handler is able to correct the unaligned access,
54	   at significant cost to performance.
55	 - Some architectures raise processor exceptions when unaligned accesses
56	   happen, but the exceptions do not contain enough information for the
57	   unaligned access to be corrected.
58	 - Some architectures are not capable of unaligned memory access, but will
59	   silently perform a different memory access to the one that was requested,
60	   resulting in a subtle code bug that is hard to detect!
62	It should be obvious from the above that if your code causes unaligned
63	memory accesses to happen, your code will not work correctly on certain
64	platforms and will cause performance problems on others.
67	Code that does not cause unaligned access
68	=========================================
70	At first, the concepts above may seem a little hard to relate to actual
71	coding practice. After all, you don't have a great deal of control over
72	memory addresses of certain variables, etc.
74	Fortunately things are not too complex, as in most cases, the compiler
75	ensures that things will work for you. For example, take the following
76	structure:
78		struct foo {
79			u16 field1;
80			u32 field2;
81			u8 field3;
82		};
84	Let us assume that an instance of the above structure resides in memory
85	starting at address 0x10000. With a basic level of understanding, it would
86	not be unreasonable to expect that accessing field2 would cause an unaligned
87	access. You'd be expecting field2 to be located at offset 2 bytes into the
88	structure, i.e. address 0x10002, but that address is not evenly divisible
89	by 4 (remember, we're reading a 4 byte value here).
91	Fortunately, the compiler understands the alignment constraints, so in the
92	above case it would insert 2 bytes of padding in between field1 and field2.
93	Therefore, for standard structure types you can always rely on the compiler
94	to pad structures so that accesses to fields are suitably aligned (assuming
95	you do not cast the field to a type of different length).
97	Similarly, you can also rely on the compiler to align variables and function
98	parameters to a naturally aligned scheme, based on the size of the type of
99	the variable.
101	At this point, it should be clear that accessing a single byte (u8 or char)
102	will never cause an unaligned access, because all memory addresses are evenly
103	divisible by one.
105	On a related topic, with the above considerations in mind you may observe
106	that you could reorder the fields in the structure in order to place fields
107	where padding would otherwise be inserted, and hence reduce the overall
108	resident memory size of structure instances. The optimal layout of the
109	above example is:
111		struct foo {
112			u32 field2;
113			u16 field1;
114			u8 field3;
115		};
117	For a natural alignment scheme, the compiler would only have to add a single
118	byte of padding at the end of the structure. This padding is added in order
119	to satisfy alignment constraints for arrays of these structures.
121	Another point worth mentioning is the use of __attribute__((packed)) on a
122	structure type. This GCC-specific attribute tells the compiler never to
123	insert any padding within structures, useful when you want to use a C struct
124	to represent some data that comes in a fixed arrangement 'off the wire'.
126	You might be inclined to believe that usage of this attribute can easily
127	lead to unaligned accesses when accessing fields that do not satisfy
128	architectural alignment requirements. However, again, the compiler is aware
129	of the alignment constraints and will generate extra instructions to perform
130	the memory access in a way that does not cause unaligned access. Of course,
131	the extra instructions obviously cause a loss in performance compared to the
132	non-packed case, so the packed attribute should only be used when avoiding
133	structure padding is of importance.
136	Code that causes unaligned access
137	=================================
139	With the above in mind, let's move onto a real life example of a function
140	that can cause an unaligned memory access. The following function taken
141	from include/linux/etherdevice.h is an optimized routine to compare two
142	ethernet MAC addresses for equality.
144	bool ether_addr_equal(const u8 *addr1, const u8 *addr2)
145	{
147		u32 fold = ((*(const u32 *)addr1) ^ (*(const u32 *)addr2)) |
148			   ((*(const u16 *)(addr1 + 4)) ^ (*(const u16 *)(addr2 + 4)));
150		return fold == 0;
151	#else
152		const u16 *a = (const u16 *)addr1;
153		const u16 *b = (const u16 *)addr2;
154		return ((a[0] ^ b[0]) | (a[1] ^ b[1]) | (a[2] ^ b[2])) != 0;
155	#endif
156	}
158	In the above function, when the hardware has efficient unaligned access
159	capability, there is no issue with this code.  But when the hardware isn't
160	able to access memory on arbitrary boundaries, the reference to a[0] causes
161	2 bytes (16 bits) to be read from memory starting at address addr1.
163	Think about what would happen if addr1 was an odd address such as 0x10003.
164	(Hint: it'd be an unaligned access.)
166	Despite the potential unaligned access problems with the above function, it
167	is included in the kernel anyway but is understood to only work normally on
168	16-bit-aligned addresses. It is up to the caller to ensure this alignment or
169	not use this function at all. This alignment-unsafe function is still useful
170	as it is a decent optimization for the cases when you can ensure alignment,
171	which is true almost all of the time in ethernet networking context.
174	Here is another example of some code that could cause unaligned accesses:
175		void myfunc(u8 *data, u32 value)
176		{
177			[...]
178			*((u32 *) data) = cpu_to_le32(value);
179			[...]
180		}
182	This code will cause unaligned accesses every time the data parameter points
183	to an address that is not evenly divisible by 4.
185	In summary, the 2 main scenarios where you may run into unaligned access
186	problems involve:
187	 1. Casting variables to types of different lengths
188	 2. Pointer arithmetic followed by access to at least 2 bytes of data
191	Avoiding unaligned accesses
192	===========================
194	The easiest way to avoid unaligned access is to use the get_unaligned() and
195	put_unaligned() macros provided by the <asm/unaligned.h> header file.
197	Going back to an earlier example of code that potentially causes unaligned
198	access:
200		void myfunc(u8 *data, u32 value)
201		{
202			[...]
203			*((u32 *) data) = cpu_to_le32(value);
204			[...]
205		}
207	To avoid the unaligned memory access, you would rewrite it as follows:
209		void myfunc(u8 *data, u32 value)
210		{
211			[...]
212			value = cpu_to_le32(value);
213			put_unaligned(value, (u32 *) data);
214			[...]
215		}
217	The get_unaligned() macro works similarly. Assuming 'data' is a pointer to
218	memory and you wish to avoid unaligned access, its usage is as follows:
220		u32 value = get_unaligned((u32 *) data);
222	These macros work for memory accesses of any length (not just 32 bits as
223	in the examples above). Be aware that when compared to standard access of
224	aligned memory, using these macros to access unaligned memory can be costly in
225	terms of performance.
227	If use of such macros is not convenient, another option is to use memcpy(),
228	where the source or destination (or both) are of type u8* or unsigned char*.
229	Due to the byte-wise nature of this operation, unaligned accesses are avoided.
232	Alignment vs. Networking
233	========================
235	On architectures that require aligned loads, networking requires that the IP
236	header is aligned on a four-byte boundary to optimise the IP stack. For
237	regular ethernet hardware, the constant NET_IP_ALIGN is used. On most
238	architectures this constant has the value 2 because the normal ethernet
239	header is 14 bytes long, so in order to get proper alignment one needs to
240	DMA to an address which can be expressed as 4*n + 2. One notable exception
241	here is powerpc which defines NET_IP_ALIGN to 0 because DMA to unaligned
242	addresses can be very expensive and dwarf the cost of unaligned loads.
244	For some ethernet hardware that cannot DMA to unaligned addresses like
245	4*n+2 or non-ethernet hardware, this can be a problem, and it is then
246	required to copy the incoming frame into an aligned buffer. Because this is
247	unnecessary on architectures that can do unaligned accesses, the code can be
248	made dependent on CONFIG_HAVE_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS like so:
251		skb = original skb
252	#else
253		skb = copy skb
254	#endif
256	--
257	Authors: Daniel Drake <dsd@gentoo.org>,
258	         Johannes Berg <johannes@sipsolutions.net>
259	With help from: Alan Cox, Avuton Olrich, Heikki Orsila, Jan Engelhardt,
260	Kyle McMartin, Kyle Moffett, Randy Dunlap, Robert Hancock, Uli Kunitz,
261	Vadim Lobanov
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