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Based on kernel version 3.19. Page generated on 2015-02-13 21:21 EST.

1	irq_domain interrupt number mapping library
2	
3	The current design of the Linux kernel uses a single large number
4	space where each separate IRQ source is assigned a different number.
5	This is simple when there is only one interrupt controller, but in
6	systems with multiple interrupt controllers the kernel must ensure
7	that each one gets assigned non-overlapping allocations of Linux
8	IRQ numbers.
9	
10	The number of interrupt controllers registered as unique irqchips
11	show a rising tendency: for example subdrivers of different kinds
12	such as GPIO controllers avoid reimplementing identical callback
13	mechanisms as the IRQ core system by modelling their interrupt
14	handlers as irqchips, i.e. in effect cascading interrupt controllers.
15	
16	Here the interrupt number loose all kind of correspondence to
17	hardware interrupt numbers: whereas in the past, IRQ numbers could
18	be chosen so they matched the hardware IRQ line into the root
19	interrupt controller (i.e. the component actually fireing the
20	interrupt line to the CPU) nowadays this number is just a number.
21	
22	For this reason we need a mechanism to separate controller-local
23	interrupt numbers, called hardware irq's, from Linux IRQ numbers.
24	
25	The irq_alloc_desc*() and irq_free_desc*() APIs provide allocation of
26	irq numbers, but they don't provide any support for reverse mapping of
27	the controller-local IRQ (hwirq) number into the Linux IRQ number
28	space.
29	
30	The irq_domain library adds mapping between hwirq and IRQ numbers on
31	top of the irq_alloc_desc*() API.  An irq_domain to manage mapping is
32	preferred over interrupt controller drivers open coding their own
33	reverse mapping scheme.
34	
35	irq_domain also implements translation from Device Tree interrupt
36	specifiers to hwirq numbers, and can be easily extended to support
37	other IRQ topology data sources.
38	
39	=== irq_domain usage ===
40	An interrupt controller driver creates and registers an irq_domain by
41	calling one of the irq_domain_add_*() functions (each mapping method
42	has a different allocator function, more on that later).  The function
43	will return a pointer to the irq_domain on success.  The caller must
44	provide the allocator function with an irq_domain_ops structure.
45	
46	In most cases, the irq_domain will begin empty without any mappings
47	between hwirq and IRQ numbers.  Mappings are added to the irq_domain
48	by calling irq_create_mapping() which accepts the irq_domain and a
49	hwirq number as arguments.  If a mapping for the hwirq doesn't already
50	exist then it will allocate a new Linux irq_desc, associate it with
51	the hwirq, and call the .map() callback so the driver can perform any
52	required hardware setup.
53	
54	When an interrupt is received, irq_find_mapping() function should
55	be used to find the Linux IRQ number from the hwirq number.
56	
57	The irq_create_mapping() function must be called *atleast once*
58	before any call to irq_find_mapping(), lest the descriptor will not
59	be allocated.
60	
61	If the driver has the Linux IRQ number or the irq_data pointer, and
62	needs to know the associated hwirq number (such as in the irq_chip
63	callbacks) then it can be directly obtained from irq_data->hwirq.
64	
65	=== Types of irq_domain mappings ===
66	There are several mechanisms available for reverse mapping from hwirq
67	to Linux irq, and each mechanism uses a different allocation function.
68	Which reverse map type should be used depends on the use case.  Each
69	of the reverse map types are described below:
70	
71	==== Linear ====
72	irq_domain_add_linear()
73	
74	The linear reverse map maintains a fixed size table indexed by the
75	hwirq number.  When a hwirq is mapped, an irq_desc is allocated for
76	the hwirq, and the IRQ number is stored in the table.
77	
78	The Linear map is a good choice when the maximum number of hwirqs is
79	fixed and a relatively small number (~ < 256).  The advantages of this
80	map are fixed time lookup for IRQ numbers, and irq_descs are only
81	allocated for in-use IRQs.  The disadvantage is that the table must be
82	as large as the largest possible hwirq number.
83	
84	The majority of drivers should use the linear map.
85	
86	==== Tree ====
87	irq_domain_add_tree()
88	
89	The irq_domain maintains a radix tree map from hwirq numbers to Linux
90	IRQs.  When an hwirq is mapped, an irq_desc is allocated and the
91	hwirq is used as the lookup key for the radix tree.
92	
93	The tree map is a good choice if the hwirq number can be very large
94	since it doesn't need to allocate a table as large as the largest
95	hwirq number.  The disadvantage is that hwirq to IRQ number lookup is
96	dependent on how many entries are in the table.
97	
98	Very few drivers should need this mapping.  At the moment, powerpc
99	iseries is the only user.
100	
101	==== No Map ===-
102	irq_domain_add_nomap()
103	
104	The No Map mapping is to be used when the hwirq number is
105	programmable in the hardware.  In this case it is best to program the
106	Linux IRQ number into the hardware itself so that no mapping is
107	required.  Calling irq_create_direct_mapping() will allocate a Linux
108	IRQ number and call the .map() callback so that driver can program the
109	Linux IRQ number into the hardware.
110	
111	Most drivers cannot use this mapping.
112	
113	==== Legacy ====
114	irq_domain_add_simple()
115	irq_domain_add_legacy()
116	irq_domain_add_legacy_isa()
117	
118	The Legacy mapping is a special case for drivers that already have a
119	range of irq_descs allocated for the hwirqs.  It is used when the
120	driver cannot be immediately converted to use the linear mapping.  For
121	example, many embedded system board support files use a set of #defines
122	for IRQ numbers that are passed to struct device registrations.  In that
123	case the Linux IRQ numbers cannot be dynamically assigned and the legacy
124	mapping should be used.
125	
126	The legacy map assumes a contiguous range of IRQ numbers has already
127	been allocated for the controller and that the IRQ number can be
128	calculated by adding a fixed offset to the hwirq number, and
129	visa-versa.  The disadvantage is that it requires the interrupt
130	controller to manage IRQ allocations and it requires an irq_desc to be
131	allocated for every hwirq, even if it is unused.
132	
133	The legacy map should only be used if fixed IRQ mappings must be
134	supported.  For example, ISA controllers would use the legacy map for
135	mapping Linux IRQs 0-15 so that existing ISA drivers get the correct IRQ
136	numbers.
137	
138	Most users of legacy mappings should use irq_domain_add_simple() which
139	will use a legacy domain only if an IRQ range is supplied by the
140	system and will otherwise use a linear domain mapping. The semantics
141	of this call are such that if an IRQ range is specified then
142	descriptors will be allocated on-the-fly for it, and if no range is
143	specified it will fall through to irq_domain_add_linear() which means
144	*no* irq descriptors will be allocated.
145	
146	A typical use case for simple domains is where an irqchip provider
147	is supporting both dynamic and static IRQ assignments.
148	
149	In order to avoid ending up in a situation where a linear domain is
150	used and no descriptor gets allocated it is very important to make sure
151	that the driver using the simple domain call irq_create_mapping()
152	before any irq_find_mapping() since the latter will actually work
153	for the static IRQ assignment case.
154	
155	==== Hierarchy IRQ domain ====
156	On some architectures, there may be multiple interrupt controllers
157	involved in delivering an interrupt from the device to the target CPU.
158	Let's look at a typical interrupt delivering path on x86 platforms:
159	
160	Device --> IOAPIC -> Interrupt remapping Controller -> Local APIC -> CPU
161	
162	There are three interrupt controllers involved:
163	1) IOAPIC controller
164	2) Interrupt remapping controller
165	3) Local APIC controller
166	
167	To support such a hardware topology and make software architecture match
168	hardware architecture, an irq_domain data structure is built for each
169	interrupt controller and those irq_domains are organized into hierarchy.
170	When building irq_domain hierarchy, the irq_domain near to the device is
171	child and the irq_domain near to CPU is parent. So a hierarchy structure
172	as below will be built for the example above.
173		CPU Vector irq_domain (root irq_domain to manage CPU vectors)
174			^
175			|
176		Interrupt Remapping irq_domain (manage irq_remapping entries)
177			^
178			|
179		IOAPIC irq_domain (manage IOAPIC delivery entries/pins)
180	
181	There are four major interfaces to use hierarchy irq_domain:
182	1) irq_domain_alloc_irqs(): allocate IRQ descriptors and interrupt
183	   controller related resources to deliver these interrupts.
184	2) irq_domain_free_irqs(): free IRQ descriptors and interrupt controller
185	   related resources associated with these interrupts.
186	3) irq_domain_activate_irq(): activate interrupt controller hardware to
187	   deliver the interrupt.
188	3) irq_domain_deactivate_irq(): deactivate interrupt controller hardware
189	   to stop delivering the interrupt.
190	
191	Following changes are needed to support hierarchy irq_domain.
192	1) a new field 'parent' is added to struct irq_domain; it's used to
193	   maintain irq_domain hierarchy information.
194	2) a new field 'parent_data' is added to struct irq_data; it's used to
195	   build hierarchy irq_data to match hierarchy irq_domains. The irq_data
196	   is used to store irq_domain pointer and hardware irq number.
197	3) new callbacks are added to struct irq_domain_ops to support hierarchy
198	   irq_domain operations.
199	
200	With support of hierarchy irq_domain and hierarchy irq_data ready, an
201	irq_domain structure is built for each interrupt controller, and an
202	irq_data structure is allocated for each irq_domain associated with an
203	IRQ. Now we could go one step further to support stacked(hierarchy)
204	irq_chip. That is, an irq_chip is associated with each irq_data along
205	the hierarchy. A child irq_chip may implement a required action by
206	itself or by cooperating with its parent irq_chip.
207	
208	With stacked irq_chip, interrupt controller driver only needs to deal
209	with the hardware managed by itself and may ask for services from its
210	parent irq_chip when needed. So we could achieve a much cleaner
211	software architecture.
212	
213	For an interrupt controller driver to support hierarchy irq_domain, it
214	needs to:
215	1) Implement irq_domain_ops.alloc and irq_domain_ops.free
216	2) Optionally implement irq_domain_ops.activate and
217	   irq_domain_ops.deactivate.
218	3) Optionally implement an irq_chip to manage the interrupt controller
219	   hardware.
220	4) No need to implement irq_domain_ops.map and irq_domain_ops.unmap,
221	   they are unused with hierarchy irq_domain.
222	
223	Hierarchy irq_domain may also be used to support other architectures,
224	such as ARM, ARM64 etc.
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