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Based on kernel version 4.9. Page generated on 2016-12-21 14:34 EST.

1	Using the initial RAM disk (initrd)
2	===================================
4	Written 1996,2000 by Werner Almesberger <werner.almesberger@epfl.ch> and
5	                     Hans Lermen <lermen@fgan.de>
8	initrd provides the capability to load a RAM disk by the boot loader.
9	This RAM disk can then be mounted as the root file system and programs
10	can be run from it. Afterwards, a new root file system can be mounted
11	from a different device. The previous root (from initrd) is then moved
12	to a directory and can be subsequently unmounted.
14	initrd is mainly designed to allow system startup to occur in two phases,
15	where the kernel comes up with a minimum set of compiled-in drivers, and
16	where additional modules are loaded from initrd.
18	This document gives a brief overview of the use of initrd. A more detailed
19	discussion of the boot process can be found in [1].
22	Operation
23	---------
25	When using initrd, the system typically boots as follows:
27	  1) the boot loader loads the kernel and the initial RAM disk
28	  2) the kernel converts initrd into a "normal" RAM disk and
29	     frees the memory used by initrd
30	  3) if the root device is not /dev/ram0, the old (deprecated)
31	     change_root procedure is followed. see the "Obsolete root change
32	     mechanism" section below.
33	  4) root device is mounted. if it is /dev/ram0, the initrd image is
34	     then mounted as root
35	  5) /sbin/init is executed (this can be any valid executable, including
36	     shell scripts; it is run with uid 0 and can do basically everything
37	     init can do).
38	  6) init mounts the "real" root file system
39	  7) init places the root file system at the root directory using the
40	     pivot_root system call
41	  8) init execs the /sbin/init on the new root filesystem, performing
42	     the usual boot sequence
43	  9) the initrd file system is removed
45	Note that changing the root directory does not involve unmounting it.
46	It is therefore possible to leave processes running on initrd during that
47	procedure. Also note that file systems mounted under initrd continue to
48	be accessible.
51	Boot command-line options
52	-------------------------
54	initrd adds the following new options:
56	  initrd=<path>    (e.g. LOADLIN)
58	    Loads the specified file as the initial RAM disk. When using LILO, you
59	    have to specify the RAM disk image file in /etc/lilo.conf, using the
60	    INITRD configuration variable.
62	  noinitrd
64	    initrd data is preserved but it is not converted to a RAM disk and
65	    the "normal" root file system is mounted. initrd data can be read
66	    from /dev/initrd. Note that the data in initrd can have any structure
67	    in this case and doesn't necessarily have to be a file system image.
68	    This option is used mainly for debugging.
70	    Note: /dev/initrd is read-only and it can only be used once. As soon
71	    as the last process has closed it, all data is freed and /dev/initrd
72	    can't be opened anymore.
74	  root=/dev/ram0
76	    initrd is mounted as root, and the normal boot procedure is followed,
77	    with the RAM disk mounted as root.
79	Compressed cpio images
80	----------------------
82	Recent kernels have support for populating a ramdisk from a compressed cpio
83	archive. On such systems, the creation of a ramdisk image doesn't need to
84	involve special block devices or loopbacks; you merely create a directory on
85	disk with the desired initrd content, cd to that directory, and run (as an
86	example):
88	find . | cpio --quiet -H newc -o | gzip -9 -n > /boot/imagefile.img
90	Examining the contents of an existing image file is just as simple:
92	mkdir /tmp/imagefile
93	cd /tmp/imagefile
94	gzip -cd /boot/imagefile.img | cpio -imd --quiet
96	Installation
97	------------
99	First, a directory for the initrd file system has to be created on the
100	"normal" root file system, e.g.
102	# mkdir /initrd
104	The name is not relevant. More details can be found on the pivot_root(2)
105	man page.
107	If the root file system is created during the boot procedure (i.e. if
108	you're building an install floppy), the root file system creation
109	procedure should create the /initrd directory.
111	If initrd will not be mounted in some cases, its content is still
112	accessible if the following device has been created:
114	# mknod /dev/initrd b 1 250 
115	# chmod 400 /dev/initrd
117	Second, the kernel has to be compiled with RAM disk support and with
118	support for the initial RAM disk enabled. Also, at least all components
119	needed to execute programs from initrd (e.g. executable format and file
120	system) must be compiled into the kernel.
122	Third, you have to create the RAM disk image. This is done by creating a
123	file system on a block device, copying files to it as needed, and then
124	copying the content of the block device to the initrd file. With recent
125	kernels, at least three types of devices are suitable for that:
127	 - a floppy disk (works everywhere but it's painfully slow)
128	 - a RAM disk (fast, but allocates physical memory)
129	 - a loopback device (the most elegant solution)
131	We'll describe the loopback device method:
133	 1) make sure loopback block devices are configured into the kernel
134	 2) create an empty file system of the appropriate size, e.g.
135	    # dd if=/dev/zero of=initrd bs=300k count=1
136	    # mke2fs -F -m0 initrd
137	    (if space is critical, you may want to use the Minix FS instead of Ext2)
138	 3) mount the file system, e.g.
139	    # mount -t ext2 -o loop initrd /mnt
140	 4) create the console device:
141	    # mkdir /mnt/dev
142	    # mknod /mnt/dev/console c 5 1
143	 5) copy all the files that are needed to properly use the initrd
144	    environment. Don't forget the most important file, /sbin/init
145	    Note that /sbin/init's permissions must include "x" (execute).
146	 6) correct operation the initrd environment can frequently be tested
147	    even without rebooting with the command
148	    # chroot /mnt /sbin/init
149	    This is of course limited to initrds that do not interfere with the
150	    general system state (e.g. by reconfiguring network interfaces,
151	    overwriting mounted devices, trying to start already running demons,
152	    etc. Note however that it is usually possible to use pivot_root in
153	    such a chroot'ed initrd environment.)
154	 7) unmount the file system
155	    # umount /mnt
156	 8) the initrd is now in the file "initrd". Optionally, it can now be
157	    compressed
158	    # gzip -9 initrd
160	For experimenting with initrd, you may want to take a rescue floppy and
161	only add a symbolic link from /sbin/init to /bin/sh. Alternatively, you
162	can try the experimental newlib environment [2] to create a small
163	initrd.
165	Finally, you have to boot the kernel and load initrd. Almost all Linux
166	boot loaders support initrd. Since the boot process is still compatible
167	with an older mechanism, the following boot command line parameters
168	have to be given:
170	  root=/dev/ram0 rw
172	(rw is only necessary if writing to the initrd file system.)
174	With LOADLIN, you simply execute
176	     LOADLIN <kernel> initrd=<disk_image>
177	e.g. LOADLIN C:\LINUX\BZIMAGE initrd=C:\LINUX\INITRD.GZ root=/dev/ram0 rw
179	With LILO, you add the option INITRD=<path> to either the global section
180	or to the section of the respective kernel in /etc/lilo.conf, and pass
181	the options using APPEND, e.g.
183	  image = /bzImage
184	    initrd = /boot/initrd.gz
185	    append = "root=/dev/ram0 rw"
187	and run /sbin/lilo
189	For other boot loaders, please refer to the respective documentation.
191	Now you can boot and enjoy using initrd.
194	Changing the root device
195	------------------------
197	When finished with its duties, init typically changes the root device
198	and proceeds with starting the Linux system on the "real" root device.
200	The procedure involves the following steps:
201	 - mounting the new root file system
202	 - turning it into the root file system
203	 - removing all accesses to the old (initrd) root file system
204	 - unmounting the initrd file system and de-allocating the RAM disk
206	Mounting the new root file system is easy: it just needs to be mounted on
207	a directory under the current root. Example:
209	# mkdir /new-root
210	# mount -o ro /dev/hda1 /new-root
212	The root change is accomplished with the pivot_root system call, which
213	is also available via the pivot_root utility (see pivot_root(8) man
214	page; pivot_root is distributed with util-linux version 2.10h or higher
215	[3]). pivot_root moves the current root to a directory under the new
216	root, and puts the new root at its place. The directory for the old root
217	must exist before calling pivot_root. Example:
219	# cd /new-root
220	# mkdir initrd
221	# pivot_root . initrd
223	Now, the init process may still access the old root via its
224	executable, shared libraries, standard input/output/error, and its
225	current root directory. All these references are dropped by the
226	following command:
228	# exec chroot . what-follows <dev/console >dev/console 2>&1
230	Where what-follows is a program under the new root, e.g. /sbin/init
231	If the new root file system will be used with udev and has no valid
232	/dev directory, udev must be initialized before invoking chroot in order
233	to provide /dev/console.
235	Note: implementation details of pivot_root may change with time. In order
236	to ensure compatibility, the following points should be observed:
238	 - before calling pivot_root, the current directory of the invoking
239	   process should point to the new root directory
240	 - use . as the first argument, and the _relative_ path of the directory
241	   for the old root as the second argument
242	 - a chroot program must be available under the old and the new root
243	 - chroot to the new root afterwards
244	 - use relative paths for dev/console in the exec command
246	Now, the initrd can be unmounted and the memory allocated by the RAM
247	disk can be freed:
249	# umount /initrd
250	# blockdev --flushbufs /dev/ram0
252	It is also possible to use initrd with an NFS-mounted root, see the
253	pivot_root(8) man page for details.
256	Usage scenarios
257	---------------
259	The main motivation for implementing initrd was to allow for modular
260	kernel configuration at system installation. The procedure would work
261	as follows:
263	  1) system boots from floppy or other media with a minimal kernel
264	     (e.g. support for RAM disks, initrd, a.out, and the Ext2 FS) and
265	     loads initrd
266	  2) /sbin/init determines what is needed to (1) mount the "real" root FS
267	     (i.e. device type, device drivers, file system) and (2) the
268	     distribution media (e.g. CD-ROM, network, tape, ...). This can be
269	     done by asking the user, by auto-probing, or by using a hybrid
270	     approach.
271	  3) /sbin/init loads the necessary kernel modules
272	  4) /sbin/init creates and populates the root file system (this doesn't
273	     have to be a very usable system yet)
274	  5) /sbin/init invokes pivot_root to change the root file system and
275	     execs - via chroot - a program that continues the installation
276	  6) the boot loader is installed
277	  7) the boot loader is configured to load an initrd with the set of
278	     modules that was used to bring up the system (e.g. /initrd can be
279	     modified, then unmounted, and finally, the image is written from
280	     /dev/ram0 or /dev/rd/0 to a file)
281	  8) now the system is bootable and additional installation tasks can be
282	     performed
284	The key role of initrd here is to re-use the configuration data during
285	normal system operation without requiring the use of a bloated "generic"
286	kernel or re-compiling or re-linking the kernel.
288	A second scenario is for installations where Linux runs on systems with
289	different hardware configurations in a single administrative domain. In
290	such cases, it is desirable to generate only a small set of kernels
291	(ideally only one) and to keep the system-specific part of configuration
292	information as small as possible. In this case, a common initrd could be
293	generated with all the necessary modules. Then, only /sbin/init or a file
294	read by it would have to be different.
296	A third scenario is more convenient recovery disks, because information
297	like the location of the root FS partition doesn't have to be provided at
298	boot time, but the system loaded from initrd can invoke a user-friendly
299	dialog and it can also perform some sanity checks (or even some form of
300	auto-detection).
302	Last not least, CD-ROM distributors may use it for better installation
303	from CD, e.g. by using a boot floppy and bootstrapping a bigger RAM disk
304	via initrd from CD; or by booting via a loader like LOADLIN or directly
305	from the CD-ROM, and loading the RAM disk from CD without need of
306	floppies. 
309	Obsolete root change mechanism
310	------------------------------
312	The following mechanism was used before the introduction of pivot_root.
313	Current kernels still support it, but you should _not_ rely on its
314	continued availability.
316	It works by mounting the "real" root device (i.e. the one set with rdev
317	in the kernel image or with root=... at the boot command line) as the
318	root file system when linuxrc exits. The initrd file system is then
319	unmounted, or, if it is still busy, moved to a directory /initrd, if
320	such a directory exists on the new root file system.
322	In order to use this mechanism, you do not have to specify the boot
323	command options root, init, or rw. (If specified, they will affect
324	the real root file system, not the initrd environment.)
326	If /proc is mounted, the "real" root device can be changed from within
327	linuxrc by writing the number of the new root FS device to the special
328	file /proc/sys/kernel/real-root-dev, e.g.
330	  # echo 0x301 >/proc/sys/kernel/real-root-dev
332	Note that the mechanism is incompatible with NFS and similar file
333	systems.
335	This old, deprecated mechanism is commonly called "change_root", while
336	the new, supported mechanism is called "pivot_root".
339	Mixed change_root and pivot_root mechanism
340	------------------------------------------
342	In case you did not want to use root=/dev/ram0 to trigger the pivot_root
343	mechanism, you may create both /linuxrc and /sbin/init in your initrd image.
345	/linuxrc would contain only the following:
347	#! /bin/sh
348	mount -n -t proc proc /proc
349	echo 0x0100 >/proc/sys/kernel/real-root-dev
350	umount -n /proc
352	Once linuxrc exited, the kernel would mount again your initrd as root,
353	this time executing /sbin/init. Again, it would be the duty of this init
354	to build the right environment (maybe using the root= device passed on
355	the cmdline) before the final execution of the real /sbin/init.
358	Resources
359	---------
361	[1] Almesberger, Werner; "Booting Linux: The History and the Future"
362	    http://www.almesberger.net/cv/papers/ols2k-9.ps.gz
363	[2] newlib package (experimental), with initrd example
364	    http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/
365	[3] util-linux: Miscellaneous utilities for Linux
366	    http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/
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